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Post Info TOPIC: Universe is Bigger


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The Hubble constant
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A critically important number that specifies the expansion rate of the Universe, the so-called Hubble constant, has been independently determined using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This new value matches recent measurements using other methods and extends their validity to greater distances, thus allowing astronomers to probe earlier epochs in the evolution of the Universe.

"The reason this result is so significant is that we need the Hubble constant to tell us the size of the Universe, its age, and how much matter it contains. Astronomers absolutely need to trust this number because we use it for countless calculations" - Max Bonamente from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, lead author on the paper describing the results.

The Hubble constant is calculated by measuring the speed at which objects are moving away from us and dividing by their distance. Most of the previous attempts to determine the Hubble constant have involved using a multi-step, or distance ladder, approach in which the distance to nearby galaxies is used as the basis for determining greater distances.
The most common approach has been to use a well-studied type of pulsating star known as a Cepheid variable, in conjunction with more distant supernovae to trace distances across the Universe. Scientists using this method and observations from the Hubble Space Telescope were able to measure the Hubble constant to within 10%. However, only independent checks would give them the confidence they desired, considering that much of our understanding of the Universe hangs in the balance.
By combining X-ray data from Chandra with radio observations of galaxy clusters, the team determined the distances to 38 galaxy clusters ranging from 1.4 billion to 9.3 billion light years from Earth. These results do not rely on the traditional distance ladder. Bonamente and his colleagues find the Hubble constant to be 77 kilometers per second per megaparsec (a megaparsec is equal to 3.26 million light years), with an uncertainty of about 15%.
This result agrees with the values determined using other techniques. The Hubble constant had previously been found to be 72, give or take 8, kilometres per second per kiloparsec based on Hubble Space Telescope observations. The new Chandra result is important because it offers the independent confirmation that scientists have been seeking and fixes the age of the Universe between 12 and 14 billion years.

clusters
Credit: NASA/CXC/MSFC/M.Bonamente et al

"These new results are entirely independent of all previous methods of measuring the Hubble constant" - Marshall Joy, team member also of MSFC.

The astronomers used a phenomenon known as the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, where photons in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) interact with electrons in the hot gas that pervades the enormous galaxy clusters. The photons acquire energy from this interaction, which distorts the signal from the microwave background in the direction of the clusters. The magnitude of this distortion depends on the density and temperature of the hot electrons and the physical size of the cluster. Using radio telescopes to measure the distortion of the microwave background and Chandra to measure the properties of the hot gas, the physical size of the cluster can be determined. From this physical size and a simple measurement of the angle subtended by the cluster, the rules of geometry can be used to derive its distance. The Hubble constant is determined by dividing previously measured cluster speeds by these newly derived distances.
This project was championed by Chandra's telescope mirror designer, Leon Van Speybroeck, who passed away in 2002. The foundation was laid when team members John Carlstrom (University of Chicago) and Marshall Joy obtained careful radio measurements of the distortions in the CMB radiation using radio telescopes at the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Array and the Caltech Owens Valley Radio Observatory. In order to measure the precise X-ray properties of the gas in these distant clusters, a space-based X-ray telescope with the resolution and sensitivity of Chandra was required.

"It was one of Leon's goals to see this project happen, and it makes me very proud to see this come to fruition" - Martin Weisskopf, Chandra Project Scientist of MSFC.

The results are described in a paper appearing in the August 10th issue of The Astrophysical Journal. MSFC manages the Chandra program for the agency's Science Mission Directorate. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Centre, Cambridge, Massachusetts, US.

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RE: Universe is Bigger
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Earlier measurements were based on calculations using the Hubble constant, a measure of the expansion rate and age of the universe. The new observation implies that the value used for the constant is 15% larger; this in turn, means the observable universe is 15% larger, and 15% older than previously thought.

"Our result hints that there may be something interesting happening with the Hubble constant. We need to follow this up with more measurements" - Norbert Przybilla, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany.

Estimates using Wmap satellite data have put the age of the universe at 13.7 billion years. The new research suggests it may actually be 15.8 billion years old.

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That intergalactic road trip to Triangulum is going to take a little longer than you had planned. An Ohio State University astronomer and his colleagues have determined that the Triangulum Galaxy, otherwise known as M33, is actually about 15 percent farther away from our galaxy than previously measured.
This finding implies that the Hubble constant, a number that astronomers rely on to calculate a host of factors -- including the size and age of the universe -- could be significantly off the mark as well.

That means that the universe could be 15 percent bigger and 15 percent older than any previous calculations suggested.
The astronomers came to this conclusion after they invented a new method for calculating intergalactic distances, one that is more precise and much simpler than standard methods. Kris Stanek, associate professor of astronomy at Ohio State, and his coauthors describe the method in a paper to appear in the Astrophysical Journal.

In 1929, Edwin Hubble formulated the cosmological distance law that determines the Hubble constant. Scientists have disagreed about the exact value of the constant over the years, but the current value has been accepted since the 1950s. Astronomers have discovered other cosmological parameters since then, but the Hubble constant and its associated methods for calculating distance haven't changed.

"The Hubble constant used to be the one parameter that we knew pretty well, and now it's lagging behind. Now we know some things quite a bit better than we know the Hubble constant. Ten years ago, we didn't even know that dark energy existed. Now we know how much dark energy there is -- better than we know the Hubble constant, which has been around for almost 80 years" - Kris Stanek.

Still, Stanek said he and his colleagues didn't start this work in order to change the value of the Hubble constant. They just wanted to find a simpler way to calculate distances.
To calculate the distance to a faraway galaxy using the Hubble constant, astronomers have to work through several complex steps of related equations, and incorporate distances to closer objects, such as the Large Magellanic Cloud.

"In every step you accumulate errors. We wanted an independent measure of distance -- a single step that will one day help with measuring dark energy and other things" - Kris Stanek.

The new method took 10 years to develop. They studied M33 in optical and infrared wavelengths, checking and re-checking measurements that are normally taken for granted. They used telescopes of all sizes, from fairly small 1-meter telescopes to the largest in the world -- the 10-meter telescopes at the Keck Observatory in Hawaii.

"Technologically, we had to be on the cutting edge to make this work, but the basic idea is very simple" - Kris Stanek.

They studied two of the brightest stars in M33, which are part of a binary system, meaning that the stars orbit each other. As seen from Earth, one star eclipses the other every five days.
They measured the mass of the stars, which told them how bright those stars would appear if they were nearby. But the stars actually appear dimmer because they are far away. The difference between the intrinsic brightness and the apparent brightness told them how far away the stars were -- in a single calculation.
To their surprise, the distance was 15 percent farther than they expected: about 3 million light-years away, instead of 2.6 million light-years as determined by the Hubble constant.
If this new distance measurement is correct, then the true value of the Hubble constant may be 15 percent smaller -- and the universe may be 15 percent bigger and older -- than previously thought.

"Our margin of error is now 6 percent, which is actually pretty good" - Kris Stanek.

Next, they may do the same calculation for another star system in M33, to reduce their error further, or they may look at the nearby Andromeda galaxy. The kind of binary systems they are looking for are relatively rare, he said, and getting all the necessary measurements to repeat the calculation would probably take at least another two years.

Source: Ohio State University


Title: The First DIRECT Distance Determination to a Detached Eclipsing Binary in M33
Authors: A. Z. Bonanos, K. Z. Stanek, R. P. Kudritzki, L.M. Macri, D. D. Sasselov, J. Kaluzny, P. B. Stetson, D. Bersier, F. Bresolin, T. Matheson, B.J. Mochejska, N. Przybilla, A.H. Szentgyorgyi, J. Tonry, G. Torres

We present the first direct distance determination to a detached eclipsing binary in M33, which was found by the DIRECT Project. Located in the OB 66 association at coordinates (alpha, delta)=(01:33:46.17,+30:44:39.9) for J2000.0, it was one of the most suitable detached eclipsing binaries found by DIRECT for distance determination, given its apparent magnitude and orbital period. We obtained follow-up BV time series photometry, JHKs photometry and optical spectroscopy from which we determined the parameters of the system. It contains two O7 main sequence stars with masses of 33.43.5 Mo and 30.03.3 Mo and radii of 12.30.4 Ro and 8.80.3 Ro, respectively. We derive temperatures of 370001500 K and 356001500 K. Using BVRJHKs photometry for the flux calibration, we obtain a distance modulus of 24.920.12 mag (96454 kpc), which is ~0.3 mag longer than the Key Project distance to M33. We discuss the implications of our result and the importance of establishing M33 as an independent rung on the cosmological distance ladder.

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