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Title: Antares completed: First selected results
Authors: Eleonora Presani, for the ANTARES collaboration

In May 2008, the Antares collaboration has completed the construction of the first deep sea neutrino telescope in the Northern hemisphere. Antares is a 3D array of 900 photomultipliers held in the sea by twelve mooring lines anchored at a depth of 2500 m in the Mediterranean Sea 40 km off the southern French coast. The detection principle is based on the observation of Cerenkov light induced by charged particles produced in neutrino interactions in the matter surrounding the detector.

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ANTARES neutrino telescope
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Title: Status and first results of the ANTARES neutrino telescope
Authors: G. Carminati (the ANTARES Collaboration)

The ANTARES (Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and Abyss environmental RESearch) Collaboration constructed and deployed the world's largest operational underwater neutrino telescope, optimised for the detection of Cherenkov light produced by neutrino-induced muons. The detector has an effective area of about 0.1 square km and it is a first step towards a kilometric scale detector. The detector consists of a three-dimensional array of 884 photomultiplier tubes, arranged in 12 lines anchored at a depth of 2475 m in the Mediterranean Sea, 40 km offshore from Toulon (France). An additional instrumented line is used for environmental monitoring and for neutrino acoustic detection R&D. ANTARES is taking data with its full twelve line configuration since May 2008 and had been also doing so for more than a year before a five and ten line setups. First results obtained with the 5 line setup are presented.

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Title: Performance of the First ANTARES Detector Line
Authors: ANTARES collaboration: M. Ageron, et al

In this paper we report on the data recorded with the first Antares detector line. The line was deployed on the 14th of February 2006 and was connected to the readout two weeks later. Environmental data for one and a half years of running are shown. Measurements of atmospheric muons from data taken from selected runs during the first six months of operation are presented. Performance figures in terms of time residuals and angular resolution are given. Finally the angular distribution of atmospheric muons is presented and from this the depth profile of the muon intensity is derived.

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ANTARES Neutrino Telescope
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Title: The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope
Authors: G. Giacomelli, for the Antares Collaboration

The ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope, at a depth of 2475 m in the Mediterranean Sea, near Toulon, is taking data in its final configuration of 12 detection lines. Each line is equipped with 75 photomultipliers (PMT) housed in glass pressure spheres arranged in 25 triplets at depths between 100 and 450 m above the sea floor. The PMTs look down at 45^o to have better sensitivity to the Cherenkov light from upgoing muons produced in the interactions of high energy neutrinos traversing the Earth. Such neutrinos may arrive from a variety of astrophysical sources, though the majority are atmospheric neutrinos. The data from 5 lines in operation in 2007 yielded a sufficient number of downgoing muons with which to study the detector performances, the vertical muon intensity and reconstruct the first upgoing neutrino induced muons.

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An international team has finished building the ANTARES telescope, which will search for elusive particles called neutrinos from its base 2.5 kilometres under the Mediterranean Sea.

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Antares scrute les fonds marins de tous ses yeux pour mieux comprendre l'Univers
La construction du premier télescope sous-marin à neutrinos jamais réalisé vient de s'achever. Depuis le début du mois de juin, les deux dernières lignes de détection d'Antares scrutent le fond de la Méditerranée à la recherche de neutrinos d'origine cosmique. Ce sont désormais 12 lignes de détection qui cherchent à capter ces particules élémentaires, témoins des phénomènes les plus violents de l'Univers. Cet événement récompense les efforts de la collaboration européenne(1) Antares, en particulier ceux du CEA-Irfu, de l'IN2P3-CNRS, de l'INSU-CNRS et de l'Ifremer, acteurs majeurs dans cette aventure.

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Title: The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope: First results
Authors: Thierry Pradier

The Antares Collaboration is completing the deployment of a 12 lines underwater detector 2500m deep in the Mediterranean Sea, dedicated to high energy neutrino astronomy. Starting with the rst line in 2006, 10 lines were continuously recording data by the end of 2007, which allow us to reconstruct downward-going cosmic muons, and search for the rst upward-going -induced muons. Calibration topics will be described and preliminary results presented.

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It could be the world's most elaborate marine biology probe - and it was created by particle physicists.
Spanning 10,000 square metres of the Mediterranean seabed, the Antares telescope is designed to tell us about the cosmos by picking up signs of elusive particles called neutrinos, which fly thousands of light years through space. To physicists' surprise, however, the underwater particle detector is also providing a unique glimpse of marine life.
It is now being adapted to distinguish between different marine species and monitor the sea's health.

 "The deep ocean is actually less well understood than outer space" - Antares team member John Carr at the University of the Mediterranean (UM) in Marseille, France.

When complete, Antares will consist of 12 electrical cables sticking up for 350 metres above the seabed, of which eight are now in place. Each one is loaded with light detectors called photomultiplier tubes.

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The Antares telescope takes its first look at the heavens

The first detection line of the Antares neutrino telescope, lying under 2,500 meters of water, was connected by Ifremer's remotely operated robot Victor 6000 to the onshore station at La Seyne-sur-Mer (Var) on Thursday 2 March at 12:11. Several hours later, Antares took its first look at the heavens and detected its first muons. The link marked the effective birth of the Antares detector, the first deep water high energy neutrino telescope in the northern hemisphere. The event rewards ten years of work by around twenty European laboratories, including CEA/Dapnia and the CNRS/IN2P3 laboratories, who initiated the project in 1996.

The Antares telescope is a neutrino detector which has two main goals: high-energy astronomy and the search for dark matter.

Neutrinos hardly interact with matter at all. The only way to detect them is by using huge detectors which are shielded from the cosmic radiation that constantly bombards any terrestrial site, resulting in major continuous background noise. Located under the sea off Toulon (Var), Antares is protected from this radiation by the natural shielding provided by 2,500 metres depth of seawater. Photodetectors, the eyes of Antares, use a large volume of seawater to detect the very faintly luminous trails produced by muons coming up from below. The muons are produced by the interaction with the Earth's crust of neutrinos which have passed through the Earth. They can be detected because of the total darkness reigning at such immense depths. So Antares looks right through the Earth and observes the skies of the southern hemisphere, including the galactic centre, which is the seat of intensely energetic phenomena.



The photodetectors are grouped in threes along umbilical cables which are 450 meters high, which carry signals as well as energy. A total of 900 such “eyes”, distributed along 12 lines covering an area of around 200 m x 200 m on the sea floor, will be scrutinising the Universe by the end of 2007. Each line is connected to a junction box, which is linked by a 40-kilometer long electro-optical cable to the onshore station at the Institut Michel Pacha in La Seyne-sur-Mer. The installation of the Antares telescope benefited from Ifremer's logistics and expertise.

In addition, Antares forms a permanent multidisciplinary submarine scientific facility, recording both oceanographic data, including observation of the deep sea marine environment and bioluminescent phenomena, as well as geophysical data: for instance, a seismograph has been recording earthquakes for the past year.

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