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Title: Eight New Milky Way Companions Discovered in First-Year Dark Energy Survey Data
Author: The DES Collaboration, K. Bechtol, A. Drlica-Wagner, E. Balbinot, A. Pieres, J. D. Simon, B. Yanny, B. Santiago, R. H. Wechsler, J. Frieman, A. R. Walker, P. Williams, E. Rozo, E. S. Rykoff, A. Queiroz, E. Luque, A. Benoit-Levy, R. A. Bernstein, D. Tucker, I. Sevilla, R. A. Gruendl, L. N. da Costa, A. Fausti Neto, M. A. G. Maia, T. Abbott, S. Allam, R. Armstrong, A. H. Bauer, G. M. Bernstein, E. Bertin, D. Brooks, E. Buckley-Geer, D. L. Burke, A. Carnero Rosell, F. J. Castander, C. B. D'Andrea, D. L. DePoy, S. Desai, H. T. Diehl, T. F. Eifler, J. Estrada, A. E. Evrard, E. Fernandez, D. A. Finley, B. Flaugher, E. Gaztanaga, D. Gerdes, L. Girardi, M. Gladders, D. Gruen, G. Gutierrez, J. Hao, K. Honscheid, B. Jain, D. James, S. Kent, R. Kron, K. Kuehn, N. Kuropatkin, O. Lahav, T. S. Li, et al. (32 additional authors not shown)

We report the discovery of eight new Milky Way companions in ~1,800 deg^2 of optical imaging data collected during the first year of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Each system is identified as a statistically significant over-density of individual stars consistent with the expected isochrone and luminosity function of an old and metal-poor stellar population. The objects span a wide range of absolute magnitudes (M_V from -2.2 mag to -7.4 mag), physical sizes (10 pc to 170 pc), and heliocentric distances (30 kpc to 330 kpc). Based on the low surface brightnesses, large physical sizes, and/or large Galactocentric distances of these objects, several are likely to be new ultra-faint satellite galaxies of the Milky Way and/or Magellanic Clouds. We introduce a likelihood-based algorithm to search for and characterize stellar over-densities, as well as identify stars with high satellite membership probabilities. We also present completeness estimates for detecting ultra-faint galaxies of varying luminosities, sizes, and heliocentric distances in the first-year DES data.

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Interactive dark matter could explain Milky Ways missing satellite galaxies

Scientists believe they have found a way to explain why there are not as many galaxies orbiting the Milky Way as expected.
The paper proposes that dark matter particles, as well as feeling the force of gravity, could have interacted with photons and neutrinos in the young Universe, causing the dark matter to scatter. This scattering wipes out the structures that can trap gas, stopping more galaxies from forming around the Milky Way and reducing the number that should exist.

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Title: On the stark difference in satellite distributions around the Milky Way and Andromeda
Authors: Basilio Yniguez, Shea Garrison-Kimmel, Michael Boylan-Kolchin, James S. Bullock (UC Irvine)

We compare spherically-averaged radial number counts of bright (> 10^5 Lsun) dwarf satellite galaxies within 400 kpc of the Milky Way (MW) and M31 and find that the MW satellites are much more centrally concentrated. Remarkably, the two satellite systems are almost identical within the central 100 kpc, while M31 satellites outnumber MW satellites by about a factor of four at deprojected distances spanning 100 - 400 kpc. We compare the observed distributions to those predicted for LCDM suhbalos using a suite of 44 high-resolution ~10^12 halo zoom simulations, 22 of which are in pairs like the MW and M31. We find that the radial distribution of satellites around M31 is fairly typical of those predicted for subhalos, while the Milky Way's distribution is more centrally concentrated that any of our simulated LCDM halos. One possible explanation is that our census is bright (> 10^5 Lsun) MW dwarf galaxies is significantly incomplete beyond ~ 100 kpc of the Sun. If there were ~8 - 20 more bright dwarfs orbiting undetected at 100 - 400 kpc, then the Milky Way's radial distribution would fall within the range expected from subhalo distributions and alos look very much like the known M31 system. We use our simulations to demonstrate that there is enough area left unexplored by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and its extensions that the discovery of ~10 new bright dwarfs is not implausible given the expected range of angular anisotropy of subhalos in the sky.

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Title: Tidal tails of dwarf galaxies on different orbits around the Milky Way
Authors: Ewa L. Lokas, Grzegorz Gajda, Stelios Kazantzidis

We present a phenomenological description of the properties of tidal tails forming around dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way. For this purpose we use collisionless N-body simulations of dwarfs initially composed of a disk embedded in an NFW dark matter halo. The dwarfs are placed on seven orbits around the Milky Way-like host, differing in size and eccentricity, and their evolution is followed for 10 Gyr. In addition to the well-studied morphological and dynamical transformation of the dwarf's main body, the tidal stripping causes them to lose a substantial fraction of mass both in dark matter and stars which form pronounced tidal tails. We focus on the properties of the stellar component of the tidal tails thus formed. We first discuss the break radii in the stellar density profile defining the transition to tidal tails as the radii where the profile is steepest and relate them to the classically defined tidal radii. We then calculate the relative density and velocity of the tails at a few break radii as a function of the orbital phase. Next, we measure the orientation of the tails with respect to an observer placed at the centre of the Milky Way. The tails are perpendicular to this line of sight only for a short period of time near the pericentre. For most of the time the angles between the tails and this line of sight are low, with orbit-averaged medians below 30 degrees for all, even the almost circular orbit. The median angle is typically lower while the maximum relative density higher for more eccentric orbits. The combined effects of relative density and orientation of the tails suggest that they should be easiest to detect for dwarf galaxies soon after their pericentre passage.

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Vast Polar Structure
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Title: A possible impact near the Milky Way of a former major merger in the Local Group
Authors: Sylvain Fouquet, François Hammer, Yanbin Yang, Mathieu Puech, Hector Flores

The Milky Way (MW) dwarf system presents two exceptional features, namely it forms a thick plane called the Vast Polar Structure (VPOS), and the two biggest dwarves, the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), are irregular galaxies that are almost never seen at such a proximity from a luminous, L* galaxy. Investigating from our modelling of M31 as a result of a former gas-rich major merger, we find that one of the expected tidal tail produced during the event may have reached the MW. Such a coincidence may appear quite exceptional, but the MW indeed lies within the small volume delineated by the tidal tail at the present epoch. In our scenario, most of the MW dwarves, including the MCs, may have been formed within a tidal tail formed during the former merger in the Local Group. It leads to a fair reproduction of the VPOS as well as to a simple explanation of the MCs proximity to the MW, i.e. accounting for both exceptional features of the MW dwarf distributions. However this scenario predicts dark-matter free MW dwarves, which is in apparent contradiction with their intrinsically large velocity dispersions. To be established or discarded, this requires to further investigate their detailed interactions with the MW potential.

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Title: Does the dwarf galaxy system of the Milky Way originate from Andromeda?
Authors: Sylvain Fouquet, François Hammer, Yanbin Yang, Mathieu Puech, Hector Flores

The Local Group is often seen to be a quiescent environment without significant merger events. However an ancient major merger may have occurred in the most massive galaxy. Numerical simulations have shown that tidal tails formed during gas-rich major mergers are long-lived and could be responsible for old stellar streams and likely induce the formation of tidal dwarf galaxies (TDGs). Using several hydrodynamical simulations we have investigated the most prominent tidal tail formed during the first passage, which is gas-rich and contains old and metal poor stars. We discovered several striking coincidences after comparing its location and motion to those of the Milky Way (MW) and of the Magellanic Clouds (MCs). First, the tidal tail is sweeping a relatively small volume in which the MW precisely lies. Because the geometry of the merger is somehow fixed by the anisotropic properties of the Giant Stream (GS), we evaluate the chance of the MW to be at such a rendezvous with this gigantic tidal tail to be 5 %. Second, the velocity of the tidal tail matches the LMC proper motion, and reproduce quite well the geometrical and angular momentum properties of the MW dwarfs, i.e. the so-called disk of satellites, better called Vast Polar Structure (VPOS). Third, the simulation of the tidal tail reveals one of the formed TDG with mass and location almost comparable to those of the LMC. Our present modelling is however too limited to study the detailed interaction of gas-rich TDGs with the potential of the MW, and a complementary study is required to test whether the dwarf intrinsic properties can be accounted for by our scenario. Nevertheless this study suggests a causal link between an ancient, gas-rich major merger at the M31 location, and several enigma in the Local Group, the GS, the VPOS, and the presence of the MCs.

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Title: Bailing Out the Milky Way: Variation in the Properties of Massive Dwarfs Among Galaxy-Sized Systems
Authors: Chris W. Purcell, Andrew R. Zentner

Recent kinematical constraints on the internal densities of the Milky Way's dwarf satellites have revealed a discrepancy with the subhalo populations of simulated Galaxy-scale halos in the standard CDM model of hierarchical structure formation. This has been dubbed the "too big to fail" problem, with reference to the improbability of large and invisible companions existing in the Galactic environment. In this paper, we argue that both the Milky Way observations and simulated subhalos are consistent with the predictions of the standard model for structure formation. Specifically, we show that there is significant variation in the properties of subhalos among distinct host halos of fixed mass and suggest that this can reasonably account for the deficit of dense satellites in the Milky Way. We exploit well-tested analytic techniques to predict the properties in a large sample of distinct host halos with a variety of masses spanning the range expected of the Galactic halo. The analytic model produces subhalo populations consistent with both Via Lactea II and Aquarius, and our results suggest that natural variation in subhalo properties suffices to explain the discrepancy between Milky Way satellite kinematics and these numerical simulations. At least ~10% of Milky Way-sized halos host subhalo populations for which there is no "too big to fail" problem, even when the host halo mass is as large as M_host = 10^12.2 h^-1 solar masses. Follow-up studies consisting of high-resolution simulations of a large number of Milky Way-sized hosts are necessary to confirm our predictions. In the absence of such efforts, the "too big to fail" problem does not appear to be a significant challenge to the standard model of hierarchical formation.

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Title: Search for Dark Matter Satellites using the FERMI-LAT
Authors: The Fermi LAT Collaboration: M. Ackermann, A. Albert, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, E. Bottacini, T. J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, T. H. Burnett, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, J. M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, F. de Palma, C. D. Dermer, S. W. Digel, E. do Couto e Silva, P. S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, R. Essig, L. Falletti, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, W. B. Focke, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, X. Hou, R. E. Hughes, et al. (76 additional authors not shown)

Numerical simulations based on the Lambda-CDM model of cosmology predict a large number of as yet unobserved Galactic dark matter satellites. We report the results of a Large Area Telescope (LAT) search for these satellites via the gamma-ray emission expected from the annihilation of weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter. Some dark matter satellites are expected to have hard gamma-ray spectra, finite angular extents, and a lack of counterparts at other wavelengths. We sought to identify LAT sources with these characteristics, focusing on gamma-ray spectra consistent with WIMP annihilation through the b \bar b channel. We found no viable dark matter satellite candidates using one year of data, and we present a framework for interpreting this result in the context of numerical simulations to constrain the velocity-averaged annihilation cross section for a conventional 100 GeV WIMP annihilating through the b \bar b channel.

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Milky Way satellites
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Title: The shapes of Milky Way satellites: looking for signatures of tidal stirring
Authors: Ewa L. Lokas, Steven R. Majewski, Stelios Kazantzidis, Lucio Mayer, Jeffrey L. Carlin, David L. Nidever, Leonidas A. Moustakas

We study the shapes of Milky Way satellites in the context of the tidal stirring scenario for the formation of dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The standard procedures used to measure shapes involve smoothing and binning of data and thus may not be sufficient to detect subtle structural properties like bars. Taking advantage of the fact that in nearby dwarfs photometry of individual stars is available we introduce discrete measures of shape based on the two-dimensional inertia tensor and the Fourier bar mode. We apply these measures of shape first to a variety of simulated dwarf galaxies formed via tidal stirring of disks embedded in dark matter halos and orbiting the Milky Way. In addition to strong mass loss and randomisation of stellar orbits, the disks undergo morphological transformation which typically involves the formation of a triaxial bar after the first pericentre passage. These tidally induced bars persist for a few Gyr before being shortened towards a more spherical shape if the tidal force is strong enough. We test this prediction by measuring in a similar way the shape of nearby dwarf galaxies, satellites of the Milky Way. We detect inner bars in Ursa Minor, Sagittarius, LMC and possibly Carina. In addition, six out of eleven studied dwarfs show elongated stellar distributions in the outer parts which may signify transition to the tidal tails. We thus find the shapes of Milky Way satellites to be consistent with the predictions of the tidal stirring model.

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Title: Tidal Signatures in the Faintest Milky Way Satellites: The Detailed Properties of Leo V, Pisces II and Canes Venatici II
Authors: D. J. Sand, J. Strader, B. Willman, D. Zaritsky, B. McLeod, N. Caldwell, A. Seth, E. Olszewski

We present deep wide-field photometry of three recently discovered faint Milky Way satellites: Leo V, Pisces II, and Canes Venatici II. Our main goals are to study the structure and star formation history of these dwarfs; we also search for signs of tidal disturbance. The three satellites have similar half-light radii (~ 60-90 pc) but a wide range of ellipticities, extending up to ~0.5 for Leo V. Both Leo V and CVn II show hints of stream-like overdensities at large radii, and the blue horizontal branch stars in Leo V are more spatially extended than its other stars at high statistical significance. An analysis of the satellite colour-magnitude diagrams shows that all three objects are old (> 10 Gyr) and metal-poor ([Fe/H] ~ -2), though neither the models nor the data have sufficient precision to assess when the satellites formed with respect to cosmic reionisation. The lack of an observed younger stellar population (\la 10 Gyr) possibly sets them apart from the other satellites at Galactocentric distances \ga 150 kpc. We present a new compilation of structural data for all Milky Way satellite galaxies and use it to compare the properties of classical dwarfs to the ultra-faints. There is not a significant difference between the ellipticity distributions of the two groups. However, the faintest satellites tend to be more aligned toward the Galactic center, and those satellites with the highest ellipticity (\ga 0.4) have orientations (\Delta \theta_{GC}) in the range 20° \lesssim \Delta \theta_{GC} \lesssim 40°. This latter observation is in rough agreement with predictions from simulations of dwarf galaxies that have lost a significant fraction of their dark matter halos and are being tidally stripped.

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