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Title: Galaxy Zoo: the dependence of the star formation-stellar mass relation on spiral disk morphology
Author: Kyle W. Willett, Kevin Schawinski, Brooke D. Simmons, Karen L. Masters, Ramin A. Skibba, Sugata Kaviraj, Thomas Melvin, O. Ivy Wong, Robert C. Nichol, Edmond Cheung, Chris J. Lintott, Lucy Fortson

We measure the stellar mass-star formation rate relation in star-forming disk galaxies at z<0.085, using Galaxy~Zoo morphologies to examine different populations of spirals as classified by their kiloparsec-scale structure. We examine the number of spiral arms, their relative pitch angle, and the presence of a galactic bar in the disk, and show that both the slope and dispersion of the M-SFR relation is constant when varying all the above parameters. We also show that mergers (both major and minor), which represent the strongest conditions for increases in star formation at a constant mass, only boost the SFR above the main relation by ~0.3 dex; this is significantly smaller than the increase seen in merging systems at z>1. Of the galaxies lying significantly above the M-SFR relation in the local Universe, more than 50% are mergers. We interpret this as evidence that the spiral arms, which are imperfect reflections of the galaxy's current gravitational potential, are either fully independent of the various quenching mechanisms or are completely overwhelmed by the combination of outflows and feedback. The arrangement of the star formation can be changed, but the system as a whole regulates itself even in the presence of strong dynamical forcing.

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Title: Bar slowdown and the distribution of dark matter in barred galaxies
Author: E. Athanassoula

'Conspiracy' between the dark and the baryonic mater prohibits an unambiguous decomposition of disc galaxy rotation curves into the corresponding components. Several methods have been proposed to counter this difficulty, but their results are widely discrepant. In this paper, I revisit one of these methods, which relies on the relation between the halo density and the decrease of the bar pattern speed. The latter is routinely characterised by the ratio R of the corotation radius RCR to the bar length Lb, R=RCR/Lb. I use a set of N-body+SPH simulations, including sub-grid physics, whose initial conditions cover a range of gas fractions and halo shapes. The models, by construction, have roughly the same azimuthally averaged circular velocity curve and halo density and they are all submaximal, i.e. according to previous works they are expected to have all roughly the same R value, well outside the fast bar range (1.2 ± 0.2). Contrary to these expectations, however, these simulations end up having widely different R values, either within the fast bar range, or well outside it. This shows that the R value can not constrain the halo density, nor determine whether galactic discs are maximal or submaximal. I argue that this is true even for early type discs (S0s and Sas).

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New Insights on How Spiral Galaxies Get Their Arms

Spiral galaxies are some of the most beautiful and photogenic residents of the universe. Our own Milky Way is a spiral. Our solar system and Earth reside somewhere near one of its filamentous arms. And nearly 70 percent of the galaxies closest to the Milky Way are spirals.
But despite their common shape, how galaxies like ours get and maintain their characteristic arms has proved to be an enduring puzzle in astrophysics. How do the arms of spiral galaxies arise? Do they change or come and go over time?
 
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Title: Model of Outgrowths in the Spiral Galaxies NGC 4921 and NGC 7049 and the Origin of Spiral Arms
Authors: Per Carlqvist

NGC 4921 and 7049 are two spiral galaxies presenting narrow, distinct dust features. A detailed study of the morphology of those features has been carried out using Hubble Space Telescope archival images. NGC 4921 shows a few but well-defined dust arms midway to its centre while NGC 7049 displays many more dusty features, mainly collected within a ring-shaped formation. Numerous dark and filamentary structures, called outgrowths, are found to protrude from the dusty arms in both galaxies. The outgrowths point both outwards and inwards in the galaxies. Mostly they are found to be V-shaped or Y-shaped with the branches connected to dark arm filaments. Often the stem of the Y appears to consist of intertwined filaments. Remarkably, the outgrowths show considerable similarities to elephant trunks in H II regions. A model of the outgrowths, based on magnetized filaments, is proposed. The model provides explanations of both the shapes and orientations of the outgrowths. Most important, it can also give an account for their intertwined structures. It is found that the longest outgrowths are confusingly similar to dusty spiral arms. This suggests that some of the outgrowths can develop into such arms. The time-scale of the development is estimated to be on the order of the rotation period of the arms or shorter. Similar processes may also take place in other spiral galaxies. If so, the model of the outgrowths can offer a new approach to the old winding problem of spiral arms.

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Title: Handedness asymmetry of spiral galaxies with z<0.3 shows cosmic parity violation and a dipole axis
Authors: Lior Shamir

A dataset of 126,501 spiral galaxies taken from Sloan Digital Sky Survey was used to analyze the large-scale galaxy handedness in different regions of the local universe. The analysis was automated by using a transformation of the galaxy images to their radial intensity plots, which allows automatic analysis of the galaxy spin and can therefore be used to analyse a large galaxy dataset. The results show that the local universe (z<0.3) is not isotropic in terms of galaxy spin, with probability P<5.8*10^-6 of such asymmetry to occur by chance. The handedness asymmetries exhibit an approximate cosine dependence, and the most likely dipole axis was found at RA=132, DEC=32 with 1 sigma error range of 107 to 179 degrees for the RA. The probability of such axis to occur by chance is P<1.95*10^-5 . The amplitude of the handedness asymmetry reported in this paper is generally in agreement with Longo, but the statistical significance is improved by a factor of 40, and the direction of the axis disagrees somewhat.

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Title: Pitch angles of distant spiral galaxies
Authors: S.S. Savchenko, V.P. Reshetnikov

We have studied the pitch angles of spiral arms for 31 distant galaxies at z~0.7 from three Hubble Deep Fields (HDF-N, HDF-S, HUDF). Using the pitch angle - rotation velocity relation calibrated from nearby galaxies, we have estimated the rotation velocities of galaxies from the deep fields. These estimates have a low accuracy (~50 km/s), but they allow low-mass and giant galaxies to be distinguished. The Tully-Fisher relation constructed using our velocity estimates shows satisfactory agreement with the actually observed relations for distant galaxies and provides evidence for the luminosity evolution of spiral galaxies.

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Title: Cause of Spiral Galaxy Rotation Rates: a Massive Graviton
Authors: José Luis G. Pestaña, Donald H. Eckhardt

We attribute the observed rotational velocity profiles of spiral galaxy disks to a combination of Newtonian and exponential gravitational potentials. We offer a novel, yet perfectly plausible, Lagrangian from which the exponential potential is derived. The exponential potential is defined by two universal constants (corresponding to a coupling constant and a graviton mass) that we determine from our sample of 12 THINGS disks. All velocity profile fits are excellent.

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Title: Grand Design and Flocculent Spirals in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G)
Authors: Debra Meloy Elmegreen (Vassar College), the S4G Team

Spiral arm properties of 46 galaxies in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) were measured at 3.6mu, where extinction is small and the old stars dominate. The sample includes flocculent, multiple arm, and grand design types with a wide range of Hubble and bar types. We find that most optically flocculent galaxies are also flocculent in the mid-IR because of star formation uncorrelated with stellar density waves, whereas multiple arm and grand design galaxies have underlying stellar waves. Arm-interarm contrasts increase from flocculent to multiple arm to grand design galaxies and with later Hubble types. Structure can be traced further out in the disk than in previous surveys. Some spirals peak at mid-radius while others continuously rise or fall, depending on Hubble and bar type. We find evidence for regular and symmetric modulations of the arm strength in NGC 4321. Bars tend to be long, high amplitude, and flat-profiled in early type spirals, with arm contrasts that decrease with radius beyond the end of the bar, and they tend to be short, low amplitude, and exponential-profiled in late Hubble types, with arm contrasts that are constant or increase with radius. Longer bars tend to have larger amplitudes and stronger arms.

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Mystery of the pristine spirals

They're slim, they're beautiful, they're perfect... perhaps too perfect. Pristine spiral galaxies are among the most beautiful sights in the night sky, but the very fact of their existence has cosmologists scratching their heads.
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Title: Observational Evidence Against Long-Lived Spiral Arms in Galaxies
Authors: Kelly Foyle, Hans-Walter Rix, Clare Dobbs, Adam Leroy, Fabian Walter

We test whether the spiral patterns apparent in many large disk galaxies should be thought of as dynamical features that are stationary in a co-rotating frame for > t_{dyn}, as implied by the density wave approach for explaining spiral arms. If such spiral arms have enhanced star formation (SF), observational tracers for different stages of the SF sequence should show a spatial ordering, from up-stream to downstream in the corotating frame: dense HI, CO, tracing molecular hydrogen gas, 24 micron emission tracing enshrouded SF and UV emission tracing unobscured young stars. We argue that such a spatial ordering should be reflected in the angular cross-correlation (CC, in polar coordinates) using all azimuthal positions among pairs of these tracers; the peak of the CC should be offset from zero, in different directions inside and outside the corotation radius. Recent spiral SF simulations by Dobbs & Pringle, show explicitly that for the case of a stationary spiral arm potential such angular offsets between gas and young stars of differing ages should be observable as cross-correlation offsets. We calculate the angular cross-correlations for different observational SF sequence tracers in 12 nearby spiral galaxies, drawing on a data set with high quality maps of the neutral gas HI, THINGS), molecular gas (CO, HERACLES) along with 24 micron emission (Spitzer, SINGS); we include FUV images (GALEX) and 3.6 \mu m emission (Spitzer, IRAC) for some galaxies, tracing aging stars and longer timescales. In none of the resulting tracer cross-correlations for this sample do we find systematic angular offsets, which would be expected for a stationary dynamical spiral pattern of well-defined pattern speed. This result indicates that spiral density waves in their simplest form are not an important aspect of explaining spirals in large disk galaxies.

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