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Orion Molecular Cloud 1
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Violent end as young stars dramatically collide

Scientists have captured a dramatic and violent image of the collision between two young stars that tore apart their stellar nursery.
Located in the constellation of Orion, the explosive event happened some 500 years ago sending giant streamers of dust and gas across interstellar space.
Researchers say the clash produced as much energy as our Sun would over 10 million years.

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OMC-1
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ALMA Captures Dramatic Stellar Fireworks

1350 light years away, in the constellation of Orion (the Hunter), lies a dense and active star formation factory called the Orion Molecular Cloud 1 (OMC-1), part of the same complex as the famous Orion Nebula. Stars are born when a cloud of gas hundreds of times more massive than our Sun begins to collapse under its own gravity. In the densest regions, protostars ignite and begin to drift about randomly. Over time, some stars begin to fall toward a common centre of gravity, which is usually dominated by a particularly large protostar - and if the stars have a close encounter before they can escape their stellar nursery, violent interactions can occur.
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Posts: 131433
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Orion A molecular cloud
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Hidden Secrets of Orion's Clouds

This spectacular new image is one of the largest near-infrared high-resolution mosaics of the Orion A molecular cloud, the nearest known massive star factory, lying about 1350 light-years from Earth. It was taken using the VISTA infrared survey telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory in northern Chile and reveals many young stars and other objects normally buried deep inside the dusty clouds.
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RE: Orion Molecular Cloud Complex
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Star formation and magnetic turbulence in the Orion Molecular Cloud

Star_formation_and_magnetic_turbulence_in_the_Orion_Molecular_Cloud_node_full_image_2.jpg

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Orion Molecular Cloud 1
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Orions Fingers: New Clarity on an Explosive Outflow

The Orion Nebula, probably the most well-known deep sky object in the night sky, also offers rare glimpses into catastrophic episodes in the lives of stars. Widespread, high-velocity outflow points to an explosive origin of the region known as the "Orion Fingers." With new observations using adaptive optics imaging from Gemini South, John Bally of the University of Colorado and colleagues find over 120 high-velocity outflows in this region. Direct comparisons with earlier observations reveal the motion of these fingers. Measurements of their properties, and comparison with simulations, are evidence that an explosive event drives the outflows, which may be connected to the birth of "runaway," massive stars.
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Posts: 131433
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RE: Orion Molecular Cloud Complex
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Orion's Hidden Fiery Ribbon

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This dramatic new image of cosmic clouds in the constellation of Orion reveals what seems to be a fiery ribbon in the sky. This orange glow represents faint light coming from grains of cold interstellar dust, at wavelengths too long for human eyes to see. It was observed by the ESO-operated Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) in Chile.
Clouds of gas and interstellar dust are the raw materials from which stars are made. But these tiny dust grains block our view of what lies within and behind the clouds - at least at visible wavelengths - making it difficult to observe the processes of star formation.

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Posts: 131433
Date:
Lynds 1641
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Title: Young Stellar Objects in Lynds 1641: Disks, Accretion, and Star Formation History
Authors: Min Fang, Jinyoung Serena Kim, Roy van Boekel, Aurora Sicilia-Aguilar, Thomas Henning, Kevin Flaherty

We investigate the young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Lynds~1641 (L1641) cloud using multi-wavelength data including Spitzer, WISE, 2MASS, and XMM covering ~1390 YSOs across a range of evolutionary stages. In addition, we targeted a sub-sample of YSOs for optical spectroscopy. We use this data, along with archival photometric data, to derive spectral types, extinction values, masses, ages, as well as accretion rates. We obtain a disk fraction of ~50% in L1641. The disk frequency is almost constant as a function of stellar mass with a slight peak at log(M_*/M_sun)\approx-0.25. The analysis of multi-epoch spectroscopic data indicates that the accretion variability of YSOs cannot explain the two orders of magnitude of scatter for YSOs with similar masses. Forty-six new transition disk (TD) objects are confirmed in this work, and we find that the fraction of accreting TDs is lower than for optically thick disks (40--45% vs. 77--79% respectively). We confirm our previous result that the accreting TDs have a similar median accretion rate to normal optically thick disks. We confirm that two star formation modes (isolated vs. clustered) exist in L1641. We find that the diskless YSOs are statistically older than the YSOs with optically-thick disks and the transition disk objects have a median age which is intermediate between the two populations. We tentatively study the star formation history in L1641 based on the age distribution and find that star formation started to be active 2--3 Myr ago.

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Posts: 131433
Date:
Orion Molecular Cloud Complex
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Title: An X-rays Survey of the Young Stellar Population of the Lynds 1641 and Iota Orionis Regions
Authors: I. Pillitteri, S. J. Wolk, S. T. Megeath, L. Allen, J. Bally, Marc Gagne`, R. A. Gutermuth, L. Hartman, G. Micela, P. Myers, J. M. Oliveira, S. Sciortino, F. Walter, L. Rebull, J. Stauffer

We present an XMM-Newton survey of the part of Orion A cloud south of the Orion Nebula. This survey includes the Lynds 1641 (L1641) dark cloud, a region of the Orion A cloud with very few massive stars and hence a relatively low ambient UV flux, and the region around the O9 III star Iota Orionis. In addition to proprietary data, we used archival XMM data of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) to extend our analysis to a major fraction of the Orion A cloud. We have detected 1060 X-ray sources in L1641 and Iota Ori region. About 94% of the sources have 2MASS & Spitzer counterparts, 204 and 23 being Class II and Class I or protostars objects, respectively. In addition, we have identified 489 X-ray sources as counterparts to Class III candidates, given they are bright in X-rays and appear as normal photospheres at mid-IR wavelengths. The remaining 205 X-ray sources are likely distant AGNs or other galactic sources not related to Orion A. We find that Class III candidates appear more concentrated in two main clusters in L1641. The first cluster of Class III stars is found toward the northern part of L1641, concentrated around Iota Ori. The stars in this cluster are more evolved than those in the Orion Nebula. We estimate a distance of 300-320 pc for this cluster and thus it is closer than the Orion A cloud. Another cluster rich in Class III stars is located in L1641 South and appears to be a slightly older cluster embedded in the Orion A cloud. Furthermore, other evolved Class III stars are found north of the ONC toward NGC 1977.

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Herschel Discovers Some of the Youngest Stars Ever Seen

pia16839-640.jpg

Astronomers have found some of the youngest stars ever seen, thanks to the Herschel space observatory, a European Space Agency mission with important NASA contributions.
Dense envelopes of gas and dust surround the fledging stars known as protostars, making their detection difficult. The 15 newly observed protostars turned up by surprise in a survey of the biggest site of star formation near our solar system, located in the constellation Orion. The discovery gives scientists a peek into one of the earliest and least understood phases of star formation.

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Posts: 131433
Date:
Orion Molecular Filaments
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Title: Hierarchical Fragmentation of the Orion Molecular Filaments
Authors: Satoko Takahashi (ASIAA), Paul T. P. Ho (ASIAA/CfA), Paula S. Teixeira (Univ. Wien, Univ. de Lisboa), Luis A. Zapata (UNAM), Yu-Nung Su (ASIAA)

We present a high angular resolution map of 850 um continuum emission of the Orion Molecular Cloud-3 (OMC 3) obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA); the map is a mosaic of 85 pointings covering an approximate area of 6'.5 x 2'.0 (0.88 x 0.27 pc). We detect 12 spatially resolved continuum sources, each with an H_2 mass between 0.3-5.7 Mo and a projected source size between 1400-8200 AU. All the detected sources are on the filamentary main ridge n_H2>10^6 cm^-3), and analysis based on the Jeans theorem suggests that they are most likely gravitationally unstable. Comparison of multi-wavelength data sets indicates that of the continuum sources, 6/12 (50 %) are associated with molecular outflows, 8/12 (67 %) are associated with infrared sources, and 3/12 (25 %) are associated with ionised jets. The evolutionary status of these sources ranges from prestellar cores to protostar phase, confirming that OMC-3 is an active region with ongoing embedded star-formation. We detect quasi-periodical separations between the OMC-3 sources of ~17"/0.035 pc. This spatial distribution is part of a large hierarchical structure, that also includes fragmentation scales of GMC (~35 pc), large-scale clumps (~1.3 pc), and small-scale clumps (~0.3 pc), suggesting that hierarchical fragmentation operates within the Orion A molecular cloud. The fragmentation spacings are roughly consistent with the thermal fragmentation length in large-scale clumps, while for small-scale cores it is smaller than the local fragmentation length. These smaller spacings observed with the SMA can be explained by either a helical magnetic field, cloud rotation, or/and global filament collapse. Finally, possible evidence for sequential fragmentation is suggested in the northern part of the OMC-3 filament.

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