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Tepexpan Man
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After years of controversy, a new study shows that the skeleton of Mexico's Tepexpan Man is nearly 5,000 years old and lived on the shores of a tree-lined lake. Nowadays the lake has dried and the forests have given way to an arid landscape of cacti.
The Tepexpan Man was first discovered in the late 1940s near the remains of mammoths, the extinct relatives of elephants that lived in Europe and North America during the Ice Ages. He was an adult male who died in his late twenties. Due to the close association with the mammoths, the skeleton was thought to be at least 10,000 years old and hailed as the 'oldest known Mexican'.

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RE: First Americans
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Underwater exploration seeks evidence of early Americans
Where the first Americans came from, when they arrived and how they got here is as lively a debate as ever, only most of the research to date has focused on dry land excavations. But, last summer's pivotal underwater exploration in the Gulf of Mexico led by Mercyhurst College archaeologist Dr. James Adovasio yielded evidence of inundated terrestrial sites that may well have supported human occupation more than 12,000 years ago, and paved the way for another expedition this July.
As part of their 2008 findings, the researchers located and mapped buried stream and river channels and identified in-filled sinkholes that could potentially help document the late Pleistocene landscape and contain artefacts and associated animal remains from early human occupations. Continued exploration, Adovasio said, will be geared toward assessing a human presence on the now submerged beaches and intersecting river channels.

"There's no doubt that early North American occupations are underwater, but it's like looking for a needle in a haystack. We have found the haystack; now we've got to find the needles" - Dr. James Adovasio.

That happens July 23-Aug. 7 when Adovasio leads a team of scientists representing leading institutions from government and higher education to St. Petersburg, Fla., where they'll resume their search for evidence of early Americans in an area 100-to-200 miles off Florida's west coast, now about 300 feet under water. For the second year, Adovasio will be assisted by co-principal investigator Dr. C. Andrew Hemmings of Mercyhurst College and the Gault School of Archaeological Research in Austin, Texas. This year as last, the primary funding source is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

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Archaeological Evidence of Human Activity Found Beneath Lake Huron
More than 100 feet deep in Lake Huron, on a wide stoney ridge that 9,000 years ago was a land bridge, University of Michigan researchers have found the first archaeological evidence of human activity preserved beneath the Great Lakes.
The researchers located what they believe to be caribou-hunting structures and camps used by the early hunters of the period.

"This is the first time we've identified structures like these on the lake bottom. Scientifically, it's important because the entire ancient landscape has been preserved and has not been modified by farming, or modern development. That has implications for ecology, archaeology and environmental modelling" - John O'Shea, curator of Great Lakes Archaeology in the Museum of Anthropology and professor in the Department of Anthropology.

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Did Paleo-Indians hunt below the modern Great Lakes?
What is now part of Lake Huron's obscured floor became a dry land bridge between modern-day Presque Isle, Michigan and Point Clark, Ontario when lake levels dipped some 7,500 to 10,000 years ago. But could it have been a rich hunting ground for Paleo-Indians?

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The Pacific coast of the Americas was settled starting about 15,000 years ago during the last glacial retreat by seafaring peoples following a 'kelp highway' rich in marine resources, a noted professor of anthropology theorized. Jon Erlandson, director of the Museum of Natural and Cultural History at the University of Oregon, suggested that especially productive 'sweet spots,' such as the estuaries of Fraser and Stikine rivers, served as corridors by which people settled the interior of the province. Erlandson said these migrating peoples were already sophisticated in harvesting from the sea and would have worked their way down the coast in search of new sites.

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An archaeological find that includes several human teeth, bone fragments and tools -- some up to 5,000 years old -- has put the highly anticipated Lake Lawton on hold, again.
The $15 million project to flood 7,000 acres at the end of Malabar Road is stalled indefinitely as federal officials negotiate with the Seminole and Miccosukee tribes over how to proceed.

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A biochemical analysis of a rare Clovis-era stone tool cache recently unearthed in the city limits of Boulder, Colorado, indicates some of the implements were used to butcher ice-age camels and horses that roamed North America until their extinction about 13,000 years ago, according to a University of Colorado at Boulder study.

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Long before humans in North America grew corn and beans and wheat, they were harvesting and cooking the bulbs of lilies, wild onions and other plants, roasting them for days over hot rocks, says a Texas archaeologist.
The evidence for this practice has long been known of in fire-cracked rock piles found throughout North America, but archaeologists have tended to ignore it.

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Ancient Peruvians
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A study has revealed genetic links between people who inhabited northern Peru more than 1,000 years ago and Japanese, El Comercio newspaper reported Thursday.
Japanese physical anthropologist Ken-ichi Shinoda performed DNA tests on the remains of human bodies found in the East Tomb and West Tomb in the Bosque de Pomas Historical Sanctuary, which are part of the Sican Culture Archaeological Project, funded by Japan's government.
The director of the Sican National Museum, Carlos Elera, told the daily that Shinoda found that people who lived more than 1,000 years ago in what today is the Lambayeque region, about 800 kilometres  north of Lima, had genetic links to the contemporaneous populations of Ecuador, Colombia, Siberia, Taiwan and to the Ainu people of northern Japan.

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RE: First Americans
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The ancestors of Native Americans took at least two different paths into the Americas, a new genetic analysis suggests. Although both groups travelled across the Bering land bridge, which connected Asia and North America during the last ice age, the migrants later took divergent paths: one along the Pacific coast, and the other following a route that lead them east of the Rocky Mountains.
The new results counter the notion, recently growing in popularity and support, that the first Americans derived from a single founder population that moved along the deglaciated Pacific coast.
For example, a recent analysis of genetic markers in 422 Native Americans from across the Americas concluded that there was probably only a single major migration into the region. And another study found that all Native Americans share a unique genetic marker that is not present in other lineages, suggesting that Native Americans derived from a single, distinct founder population.

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