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RE: First Americans
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Americas 'settled in three waves'

The biggest survey of Native American DNA has concluded that the New World was settled in three major waves.
But the majority of today's indigenous Americans descend from a single group of migrants that crossed from Asia to Alaska 15,000 years ago or more.
Previous genetic data have lent support to the idea that America was colonised by a single migrant wave.

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  Ancient migration: Coming to America

For decades, scientists thought that the Clovis hunters were the first to cross the Arctic to America. They were wrong - and now they need a better theory
The mastodon was old, its teeth worn to nubs. It was perfect prey for a band of hunters, wielding spears tipped with needle-sharp points made from bone. Sensing an easy target, they closed in for the kill.
Almost 14,000 years later, there is no way to tell how many hits it took to bring the beast to the ground near the coast of present-day Washington state. But at least one struck home, plunging through hide, fat and flesh to lodge in the mastodon's rib. The hunter who thrust the spear on that long-ago day didn't just bring down the mastodon; he also helped to kill off the reigning theory of how people got to the Americas.

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Solutrean mariners
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Ice Age mariners from Europe were among America's first people

Some of the earliest humans to inhabit America came from Europe according to a new book.
Across Atlantic Ice puts forward a compelling case for people from northern Spain travelling to America by boat, following the edge of a sea ice shelf that connected Europe and America during the last Ice Age, 14,000 to 25,000 years ago.
Across Atlantic Ice is the result of more than a decades research by leading archaeologists Professor Bruce Bradley of the University of Exeter and Dr Dennis Stanford of the Smithsonian Institution. Through archaeological evidence, they turn the long-held theory of the origins of New World populations on its head.
For more than 400 years, it has been claimed that people first entered America from Asia, via a land bridge that spanned the Bering Sea. We now know that some people did arrive via this route nearly 15,000 years ago, probably by both land and sea.

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Native American site
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Archaeologists find ancient Native American sites

What started as a routine survey of the land surrounding a historic bridge has ended up unearthing two significant sites in the region's Native American history.
Larry Grantham, an archaeologist with the Missouri Department of Transportation's Environmental Studies and Historic Preservation department, said his team has discovered a pair of Native American sites bookending the MO-168 bridge over the North River just west of Palmyra.
On the east side of the bridge is a 1,200- to 1,500-year-old site from the late Woodland period. The site on the west side of the bridge, however, is much older - 3,000 to 5,000 years old, dating to the late Archaic period.

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Ancient site of human activity discovered in Eastern Ontario

An Ottawa archeologist has discovered a rare site of human activity in Eastern Ontario from between 3,500 and 9,000 years ago. Paul Thibaudeau, an adjunct professor at Carleton University, has been leading a team of archeologists, students, and volunteers collecting artifacts from a dig near Casselman, east of Ottawa. It is only one of a half-dozen sites in Eastern Ontario that are considered reliable evidence of human presence during the period.
Thousands of stone items have been found at what Thibaudeau said was a portage around a waterfall and rapids on the South Nation River. The spot is believed to have been a temporary hunting and animal-skinning camp. Small stone tools used in skinning, remnants of tools, and waste from the toolmaking process have been found.

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La Jolla skeletons
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Two ancient skeletons uncovered in 1976 on a bluff overlooking the Pacific Ocean, during construction at the home of a University of California chancellor, may be among the most valuable for genetic analysis in the continental United States. Dated between 9,000 and 9,600 years old, the exceptionally preserved bones could potentially produce the oldest complete human genome from the continent.
But only if scientists aren't barred from studying them.
Attempts to unlock the skeletons' genetic secrets are stalled in a dispute pitting UC scientists against their own administration. Five of the scientists wrote with alarm in a letter published May 20 in the journal Science that UC administrators aren't allowing studies on the skeletons, which were discovered on property owned by UC San Diegoin La Jolla, California.
Before samples can be extracted for genetic analysis, the scientists fear administrators will give the bones to politically powerful local Native Americans who could permanently block study.

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First Americans
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North America Settled by Just 70 People, Study Concludes

A new study of DNA suggests North America was originally populated by just a few dozen people who crossed a land bridge from Asia during the last Ice Age.
About 14,000 years ago, humans crossed the Bering land bridge from Siberia to North America, most experts agree. But just how many intrepid explorers were involved in spawning subsequent populations has not been known.

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Stone tools 'demand new American story'

The long-held theory of how humans first populated the Americas may have been well and truly broken.
Archaeologists have unearthed thousands of stone tools that predate the technology widely assumed to have been carried by the first settlers.
The discoveries in Texas are seen as compelling evidence that the so-called Clovis culture does not represent America's original immigrants.
Details of the 15,500-year-old finds are reported in Science magazine.

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Dig uncovers previously unknown North American culture.

The long-standing idea that the Clovis people of ancient North America were the first tool-using humans on the continent 13,200 years ago is being overturned by the discovery of human artefacts in a Texan creek bed that are even older.
Michael Waters, a geoarchaeologist at Texas A&M University in College Station, and his team unearthed more than 15,000 stone artefacts from the Debra L. Friedkin archaeological site in Texas. Using luminescence dating, which dates the last time samples were exposed to sunlight, the researchers found that the artefacts are between 13,200 and 15,500 years old. They seem to have been left undisturbed by any sort of soil movement, suggesting that the artefacts come from a time before the Clovis people came to dominate the landscape.

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Sophisticated stone tools and piles of bones identify early bird hunters in coastal California

A collection of delicate stone tools discovered on California's Channel Islands indicate that early humans in the Americas were hunting local waterfowl some 11,200 to 12,200 years ago.
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