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Luminosity

luminosity.gif
A = Surface Area
T = Temperature (Kelvin)


Temperature.gif
And
Stefan-Boltzmann.gif
And
surfacearea.gif

---->

luminositySub1.gif
---->

luminosityFinal.gif


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Title: Do Evaporating Black Holes Form Photospheres?
Authors: Jane H. MacGibbon, B. J. Carr, Don N. Page
(Version v5)

Several authors, most notably Heckler, have claimed that the observable Hawking emission from a microscopic black hole is significantly modified by the formation of a photosphere around the black hole due to QED or QCD interactions between the emitted particles. In this paper we analyse these claims and identify a number of physical and geometrical effects which invalidate these scenarios. We point out two key problems. Firstly, the interacting particles must be causally connected to interact, and this condition is satisfied by only a small fraction of the emitted particles close to the black hole. Secondly, a scattered particle requires a distance ~ E/m_e^2 for completing each bremsstrahlung interaction, with the consequence that it is improbable for there to be more than one complete bremsstrahlung interaction per particle near the black hole. These two effects have not been included in previous analyses. We conclude that the emitted particles do not interact sufficiently to form a QED photosphere. Similar arguments apply in the QCD case and prevent a QCD photosphere (chromosphere) developing when the black hole temperature is much greater than Lambda_QCD, the threshold for QCD particle emission. Additional QCD phenomenological arguments rule out the development of a chromosphere around black hole temperatures of order Lambda_QCD. In all cases, the observational signatures of a cosmic or Galactic halo background of primordial black holes or an individual black hole remain essentially those of the standard Hawking model, with little change to the detection probability. We also consider the possibility, as proposed by Belyanin et al. and D. Cline et al., that plasma interactions between the emitted particles form a photosphere, and we conclude that this scenario too is not supported.

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