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Title: Capture of Trojans by Jumping Jupiter
Authors: David Nesvorny, David Vokrouhlicky, Alessandro Morbidelli

Jupiter Trojans are thought to be survivors of a much larger population of planetesimals that existed in the planetary region when planets formed. They can provide important constraints on the mass and properties of the planetesimal disk, and its dispersal during planet migration. Here we tested a possibility that the Trojans were captured during the early dynamical instability among the outer planets (aka the Nice model), when the semimajor axis of Jupiter was changing as a result of scattering encounters with an ice giant. The capture occurs in this model when Jupiter's orbit and its Lagrange points become radially displaced in a scattering event and fall into a region populated by planetesimals (that previously evolved from their natal transplanetary disk to ~5 AU during the instability). Our numerical simulations of the new capture model, hereafter jump capture, satisfactorily reproduce the orbital distribution of the Trojans and their total mass. The jump capture is potentially capable of explaining the observed asymmetry in the number of leading and trailing Trojans. We find that the capture probability is (6-8) x 10^-7 for each particle in the original transplanetary disk, implying that the disk contained (3-4) x 10^7 planetesimals with absolute magnitude H<9 (corresponding to diameter D=80 km for a 7% albedo). The disk mass inferred from this work, M_disk=14-28 Earth masses, is consistent with the mass deduced from recent dynamical simulations of the planetary instability.

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Title: Are Large Trojan Asteroids Salty? An Observational, Theoretical, and Experimental Study
Authors: Bin Yang, Paul Lucey, Timothy Glotch

With a total mass similar to the main asteroid belt, the Jovian Trojan asteroids are a major feature in the solar system. Based upon the thermal infrared spectra of the largest Trojans obtained with the Spitzer space telescope, Emery et al. (2006) suggested that the surfaces of these Trojans may consist of fine-grained silicates suspended in a transparent matrix.
To explore the transparent matrix hypothesis, we adopted a modified radiative transfer model to fit the Trojan spectra simultaneously both in the near and the thermal infrared regions. Our model shows that the Trojan spectra over a wide wavelength range can be consistently explained by fine grained silicates (1-5 wt.%) and highly absorbing material (e.g. carbon or iron, 2-10 wt.%) suspended in a transparent matrix. The matrix is consistent with a deposit of salt on the surfaces of the large Trojans. However, this consistency is not an actual detection of salt and other alternatives may still be possible. We suggest that early in the Solar System history, short-lived radionuclides heated ice-rich Trojans and caused melting, internal circulation of water and dissolution of soluble materials. Briny water volcanism were facilitated by internal volatiles and a possibly global sill of frozen brine was formed beneath the cold primitive crust. The frozen brine layer was likely to be evacuated by impact erosions and evaporation of the exposed brines eventually left a lag deposit of salt. Over the Solar System's history, fine dust from comets or impacts contaminated and coloured these salty surfaces of the Trojans to produce the spectral properties observed today.

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NASA's WISE Colours in Unknowns on Jupiter Asteroids

Scientists using data from NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE, have uncovered new clues in the ongoing mystery of the Jovian Trojans -- asteroids that orbit the sun on the same path as Jupiter. Like racehorses, the asteroids travel in packs, with one group leading the way in front of the gas giant, and a second group trailing behind.
The observations are the first to get a detailed look at the Trojans' colours: both the leading and trailing packs are made up of predominantly dark, reddish rocks with a matte, non-reflecting surface. What's more, the data verify the previous suspicion that the leading pack of Trojans outnumbers the trailing bunch.

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Title: Eurybates - the only asteroid family among Trojans?
Authors: Miroslav Bro, Jakub Rozehnal

We study orbital and physical properties of Trojan asteroids of Jupiter. We try to discern all families previously discussed in literature, but we conclude there is only one significant family among Trojans, namely the cluster around asteroid (3548) Eurybates. It is the only cluster, which has all of the following characteristics: (i) it is clearly concentrated in the proper-element space; (ii) size-frequency distribution is different from background asteroids; (iii) we have a reasonable collisional/dynamical model of the family. Henceforth, we can consider it as a real collisional family.
We also report a discovery of a possible family around the asteroid (4709) Ennomos, composed mostly of small asteroids. The asteroid (4709) Ennomos is known to have a very high albedo p_V \simeq 0.15, which may be related to a hypothetical cratering event which exposed ice (Fernandez et al. 2003). The relation between the collisional family and the exposed surface of the parent body is a unique opportunity to study the physics of cratering events. However, more data are needed to confirm the existence of this family and its relationship with Ennomos.

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Title: A Peculiar Family of Jupiter Trojans: the Eurybates
Authors: F. De Luise, E. Dotto, S. Fornasier, M.A. Barucci, N. Pinilla-Alonso, D. Perna, F. Marzari

The Eurybates family is a compact core inside the Menelaus clan, located in the L4 swarm of Jupiter Trojans. Fornasier et al. (2007) found that this family exhibits a peculiar abundance of spectrally flat objects, similar to Chiron-like Centaurs and C-type main belt asteroids. On the basis of the visible spectra available in literature, Eurybates family's members seemed to be good candidates for having on their surfaces water/water ice or aqueous altered materials. To improve our knowledge of the surface composition of this peculiar family, we carried out an observational campaign at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), obtaining near-infrared spectra of 7 members. Our data show a surprisingly absence of any spectral feature referable to the presence of water, ices or aqueous altered materials on the surface of the observed objects. Models of the surface composition are attempted, evidencing that amorphous carbon seems to dominate the surface composition of the observed bodies and some amount of silicates (olivine) could be present.

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Title: The Capture of Trojan Asteroids by the Giant Planets During Planetary Migration
Authors: P. S. Lykawka, J. Horner

Of the four giant planets in the Solar system, only Jupiter and Neptune are currently known to possess swarms of Trojan asteroids - small objects that experience a 1:1 mean motion resonance with their host planet. In Lykawka et al. (2009), we performed extensive dynamical simulations, including planetary migration, to investigate the origin of the Neptunian Trojan population. Utilising the vast amount of simulation data obtained for that work, together with fresh results from new simulations, we here investigate the dynamical capture of Trojans by all four giant planets from a primordial trans-Neptunian disk. We find the likelihood of a given planetesimal from this region being captured onto an orbit within Jupiter's Trojan cloud lies between several times 10^-6 and 10^-5. For Saturn, the probability is found to be in the range <10^-6 to 10^-5, whilst for Uranus the probabilities range between 10^-5 and 10^-4. Finally, Neptune displays the greatest probability of Trojan capture, with values ranging between 10^-4 and 10^-3. Our results suggest that all four giant planets are able to capture and retain a significant population of Trojan objects from the disk by the end of planetary migration. As a result of encounters with the giant planets prior to Trojan capture, these objects tend to be captured on orbits that are spread over a wide range of orbital eccentricities and inclinations. The bulk of captured objects are to some extent dynamically unstable, and therefore the populations of these objects tend to decay over the age of the Solar System, providing an important ongoing source of new objects moving on dynamically unstable orbits among the giant planets. Given that a huge population of objects would be displaced by Neptune's outward migration (with a potential cumulative mass a number of times that of the Earth), we conclude that the surviving remnant of the Trojans captured during the migration of the outer planets might be sufficient to explain the currently known Trojan populations in the outer Solar system.

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Asteroid 1960 SX = 2009 SV35

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Jupiter's trojan asteroids
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Title: The resonant structure of Jupiter's trojan asteroids-II. What happens for different configurations of the planetary system
Authors: Philippe Robutel (IMCCE), Julien Bodossian (IMCCE)
(Version v2)

In a previous paper, we have found that the resonance structure of the present Jupiter Trojan swarms could be split up into four different families of resonances. Here, in a first step, we generalize these families in order to describe the resonances occurring in Trojan swarms embedded in a generic planetary system. The location of these families changes under a modification of the fundamental frequencies of the planets and we show how the resonant structure would evolve during a planetary migration. We present a general method, based on the knowledge of the fundamental frequencies of the planets and on those that can be reached by the Trojans, which makes it possible to predict and localize the main events arising in the swarms during migration. In particular, we show how the size and stability of the Trojan swarms are affected by the modification of the frequencies of the planets. Finally, we use this method to study the global dynamics of the Jovian Trojan swarms when Saturn migrates outwards. Besides the two resonances found by Morbidelli et al (2005) which could have led to the capture of the current population just after the crossing of the 2:1 orbital resonance, we also point out several sequences of chaotic events that can influence the Trojan population.

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Title: Albedos of Small Jovian Trojans
Authors: Y. R. Fernandez, D. Jewitt, J. E. Ziffer

We present thermal observations of 44 Jovian Trojan asteroids with diameters (D) ranging from 5 to 24 km. All objects were observed at a wavelength of 24 microns with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Measurements of the thermal emission and of scattered optical light, mostly from the University of Hawaii 2.2-meter telescope, together allow us to constrain the diameter and geometric albedo of each body. We find that the median R-band albedo of these small Jovian Trojans is about 0.12, much higher than that of "large" Trojans with D > 57 km (0.04). Also the range of albedos among the small Trojans is wider. We attribute the Trojan albedos to an evolutionary effect: the small Trojans are more likely to be collisional fragments and so their surfaces would be younger. A younger surface means less cumulative exposure to the space environment, which suggests that their surfaces would not be as dark as those of the large, primordial Trojans. In support of this hypothesis is a statistically significant correlation of higher albedo with smaller diameter in our sample alone and in a sample that includes the larger Trojans.

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Title: The resonant structure of Jupiter's Trojans asteroids-II. What happens for different configurations of the planetary system
Authors: Philippe Robutel (IMCCE), Julien Bodossian (IMCCE)

In a previous paper, we have found that the resonance structure of the present Jupiter Trojans swarms could be split up into four different families of resonances. Here, in a first step, we generalise these families in order to describe the resonances occurring in Trojans swarms embedded in a generic planetary system. The location of these families changing under a modification of the fundamental frequencies of the planets, we show how the resonant structure would evolve during a planetary migration. We present a general method, based on the knowledge of the fundamental frequencies of the planets and on those that can be reached by the Trojans, which makes possible the prediction and the localisation of the main events arising in the swarms during migration. In particular, we show how the size and stability of the Trojans swarms are affected by the modification of the frequencies of the planets. Finally, we use this method to study the global dynamics of the Jovian Trojans swarms when Saturn migrates outward. Besides the two resonances found by Morbidelli et al (2005) which could have led to the capture of the current population just after the crossing of the 2:1 orbital resonance, we also point out several sequences of chaotic events having been able to influence the Trojan population.

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