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Title: Phoebe's orbit from ground-based and space-based observations
Authors: Josselin Desmars, Shan-Na Li, Radwan Tajeddine, Qing-Yu Peng, Zheng-Hong Tang

The ephemeris of Phoebe, the ninth satellite of Saturn, is not very accurate. Previous dynamical models were usually too simplified, the astrometry is heterogeneous and, the Saturn's ephemeris itself is an additional source of error. The aim is to improve Phoebe's ephemeris by using a large set of observations, correcting some systematic errors and updating the dynamical model. The dynamical model makes use of the most recent ephemeris of planets and Saturnian satellites. The astrometry of Phoebe is improved by using a compilation of ground-based and space-based observations and by correcting the bias in stellar catalogues used for the reduction. We present an accurate ephemeris of Phoebe with residuals of 0.45 arcsec and with an estimated accuracy of Phoebe's position of less that 100 km on 1990-2020 period.

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The Cassini spacecraft flew within 2,068 kilometres of Phoebe on 11 June 2004, returning many high-resolution images of the moon and its scarred surface. 
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Cassini Finds Saturn Moon has Planet-Like Qualities

Data from NASA's Cassini mission reveal Saturn's moon Phoebe has more planet-like qualities than previously thought.
Scientists had their first close-up look at Phoebe when Cassini began exploring the Saturn system in 2004. Using data from multiple spacecraft instruments and a computer model of the moon's chemistry, geophysics and geology, scientists found Phoebe was a so-called planetesimal, or remnant planetary building block. The findings appear in the April issue of the Journal Icarus.

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Phoebe is an irregular satellite of Saturn. It was discovered by William Henry Pickering on 17 March 1899 from photographic plates that had been taken starting on 16 August 1898 at the Boyden Observatory near Arequipa, Peru, by DeLisle Stewart.
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Title: Origin of craters on Phoebe: comparison with Cassini's data
Authors: R. P. Di Sisto, A. Brunini

Phoebe is one of the irregular satellites of Saturn; the images taken by Cassini-Huygens spacecraft allowed us to analyse its surface and the craters on it. We study the craters on Phoebe produced by Centaur objects from the Scattered Disk (SD) and plutinos escaped from the 3:2 mean motion resonance with Neptune and compare our results with the observations by Cassini. We use previous simulations on trans-Neptunian Objects and a method that allows us to obtain the number of craters and the cratering rate on Phoebe. We obtain the number of craters and the greatest crater on Phoebe produced by Centaurs in the present configuration of the Solar System. Moreover, we obtain a present normalized rate of encounters of Centaurs with Saturn of \dot F = 7.1 x  10^{-11} per year, from which we can infer the current cratering rate on Phoebe for each crater diameter. Our study and the comparison with the observations suggest that the main crater features on Phoebe are unlikely to have been produced in the present configuration of the Solar System and that they must have been acquired when the SD were depleted in the early Solar System. If this is what happened and the craters were produced when Phoebe was a satellite of Saturn, then it had to be captured, very early in the evolution of the Solar System.

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The Cassini spacecraft flew within 2,068 kilometres of Phoebe on 11 June 2004, returning many high-resolution images of the moon and its scarred surface.
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Title: A precise modelling of Phoebe's rotation
Authors: L.Cottereau, E.Aleshkina, J.Souchay

Although the rotation of some Saturn's satellites in spin-orbit has already been studied by several authors, this is not the case of the rotation of Phoebe, which has the particularity of being non resonant. The purpose of the paper is to determine for the first time and with precision its precession-nutation motion. We adopt an Hamiltonian formalism of the motion of rotation of rigid celestial body set up by Kino****a (1977) based on Andoyer variables and canonical equations. First we calculate Phoebe's obliquity at J2000,0 from available astronomical data as well as the gravitational perturbation due to Saturn on Phoebe rotational motion. Then we carry out a numerical integration and we compare our results for the precession rate and the nutation coefficients with pure analytical model. Our results for Phoebe obliquity (23° 95) and Phoebe precession rate (5580".65/cy) are very close to the respective values for the Earth. Moreover the amplitudes of the nutations (26" peak to peak for the nutaton in longitude and 8" for the nutation in obliquity) are of the same order as the respective amplitudes for the Earth. We give complete tables of nutation, obtained from a FFT analysis starting from the numerical signals. We show that a pure analytical model of the nutation is not accurate due to the fact that Phoebe orbital elements e, M and Ls are far from having a simple linear behaviour. The precession and nutation of Phoebe have been calculated for the first time in this paper. We should keep on the study in the future by studying the additional gravitational effects of the Sun, of the large satellites as Titan, as well as Saturn dynamical ellipticity.

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Phoebe ring
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Stunned astronomers have discovered a new mega-ring around Saturn and believe its genesis is a small, distant moon of the giant planet.
Phoebe, a Saturnian satellite measuring only 214 kilometres (133 miles) across, probably provides the record-breaking tenuous circle of dusty and icy debris, they report on Thursday in Nature, the weekly British science journal.


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Well beyond the main rings is the Phoebe ring which is tilted at an angle of 27 degrees to the other rings and like Phoebe has a retrograde orbit.
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These set of images were created during the Phoebe flyby on June 11, 2004. The images show the location and distribution of water-ice, ferric iron, carbon dioxide and an unidentified material on the tiny moon of Saturn. The first image was taken with Cassini's narrow angle camera and is shown for comparison purposes only. The other images were taken by the visual and infrared mapping spectrometer onboard Cassini.


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The infrared image of Phoebe obtained at a distance of about 16,000 km shows a large range of bright and dark features. The resolution of the image is about 4 km. carbon dioxide on the surface of Phoebe is distributed globally, although it appears to be more prevalent in the darker regions of the satellite.

The existence of carbon dioxide strongly suggests that Phoebe did not originate in the asteroid belt, but rather in much colder regions of the Solar System such as the Kuiper Belt. The Kuiper Belt is a vast reservoir of small, primitive bodies beyond the orbit of Neptune. An unidentified substance also appears to be more abundant in the darker regions.

A map showing the distribution of water ice (blue), ferric iron (red), which is common in minerals on Earth and other planets, and the unidentified material (green). Water ice is associated with the brighter regions, while the other two materials are more abundant in the darker regions.

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