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Title: Save the Planet, Feed the Star: How Super-Earths Survive Migration and Drive Disk Accretion
Author: Jeffrey Fung, Eugene Chiang

Two longstanding problems in planet formation include (1) understanding how planets survive migration, and (2) articulating the process by which protoplanetary disks disperse---and in particular how they accrete onto their central stars. We can go a long way toward solving both problems if the disk gas surrounding planets has no intrinsic diffusivity ("viscosity"). In inviscid, laminar disks, a planet readily repels gas away from its orbit. On short timescales, zero viscosity gas accumulates inside a planet's orbit to slow Type I migration by orders of magnitude. On longer timescales, multiple super-Earths (distributed between, say, ~0.1--10 AU) can torque inviscid gas out of interplanetary space, either inward to feed their stars, or outward to be blown away in a wind. We explore this picture with 2D hydrodynamics simulations of Earths and super-Earths embedded in inviscid disks, confirming their slow/stalled migration even under gas-rich conditions, and showing that disk transport rates range up to ~10^-7 solar masses yr^-1 and scale as \dot{M} \propto \Sigma M_{p}^{3/2}, where Sigma is the disk surface density and Mp is the planet mass. Gas initially sandwiched between two planets is torqued past both into the inner and outer disks. In sum, sufficiently compact systems of super-Earths can clear their natal disk gas, in a dispersal history that may be complicated and non-steady, but which conceivably leads over Myr timescales to large gas depletions similar to those characterizing transition disks.

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Planetary Migration
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Title: Tilting Jupiter (a bit) and Saturn (a lot) During Planetary Migration
Author: David Vokrouhlicky, David Nesvorny

We study the effects of planetary late migration on the gas giants obliquities. We consider the planetary instability models from Nesvorny & Morbidelli (2012), in which the obliquities of Jupiter and Saturn can be excited when the spin-orbit resonances occur. The most notable resonances occur when the s7 and s8 frequencies, changing as a result of planetary migration, become commensurate with the precession frequencies of Jupiter's and Saturn's spin vectors. We show that Jupiter may have obtained its present obliquity by crossing of the s8 resonance. This would set strict constrains on the character of migration during the early stage. Additional effects on Jupiter's obliquity are expected during the last gasp of migration when the s7 resonance was approached. The magnitude of these effects depends on the precise value of the Jupiter's precession constant. Saturn's large obliquity was likely excited by capture into the s8 resonance. This probably happened during the late stage of planetary migration when the evolution of the s8 frequency was very slow, and the conditions for capture into the spin-orbit resonance with s8 were satisfied. However, whether or not Saturn is in the spin-orbit resonance with s8 at the present time is not clear, because the existing observations of Saturn's spin precession and internal structure models have significant uncertainties.

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Title: Type I planet migration in weakly magnetised laminar discs
Authors: Jerome Guilet, Clement Baruteau, John C. B. Papaloizou

The migration of low mass planets has been studied in hydrodynamical disc models for more than three decades, but the impact of a magnetic field in the protoplanetary disc is less known. When the disc's magnetic field is strong enough to prevent horseshoe motion, the corotation torque is replaced by a torque arising from magnetic resonances. For weak enough magnetic fields, horseshoe motion and a corotation torque exist, and recent turbulent MHD simulations have reported the existence of a new component of the corotation torque in the presence of a mean toroidal field. The aim of this paper is to investigate the physical origin and the properties of this new corotation torque. We performed MHD simulations of a low mass planet embedded in a 2D laminar disc threaded by a weak toroidal magnetic field, with the effects of turbulence modelled by a viscosity and a resistivity. We confirm that the interaction between the magnetic field and the horseshoe motion results in an additional corotation torque on the planet, which we dub the MHD torque excess. It is caused by the accumulation of the magnetic field along the downstream separatrices of the planet's horseshoe region, which gives rise to an azimuthally asymmetric underdense region at that location. The properties of the MHD torque excess are characterised by varying the slope of the density, temperature and magnetic field profiles, as well as the diffusion coefficients and the strength of the magnetic field. The sign of the MHD torque excess depends on the density and temperature gradients only, and is positive for profiles expected in protoplanetary discs. Its magnitude is in turn mainly determined by the strength of the magnetic field and the turbulent resistivity. The MHD torque excess can be strong enough to reverse migration, even when the magnetic pressure is less than one percent of the thermal pressure.

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Title: Recent developments in planet migration theory
Authors: Clément Baruteau, Frédéric Masset

Planetary migration is the process by which a forming planet undergoes a drift of its semi-major axis caused by the tidal interaction with its parent protoplanetary disc. One of the key quantities to assess the migration of embedded planets is the tidal torque between the disc and planet, which has two components: the Lindblad torque and the corotation torque. We review the latest results on both torque components for planets on circular orbits, with a special emphasis on the various processes that give rise to additional, large components of the corotation torque, and those contributing to the saturation of this torque. These additional components of the corotation torque could help address the shortcomings that have recently been exposed by models of planet population syntheses. We also review recent results concerning the migration of giant planets that carve gaps in the disc (type II migration) and the migration of sub-giant planets that open partial gaps in massive discs (type III migration).

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Title: A low mass for Mars from Jupiter's early gas-driven migration
Authors: Kevin J. Walsh, Alessando Morbidelli, Sean N. Raymond, David P. O'Brien, Avi M. Mandell

Jupiter and Saturn formed in a few million years (Haisch et al. 2001) from a gas-dominated protoplanetary disk, and were susceptible to gas-driven migration of their orbits on timescales of only ~100,000 years (Armitage 2007). Hydrodynamic simulations show that these giant planets can undergo a two-stage, inward-then-outward, migration (Masset & Snellgrove 2001, Morbidelli & Crida 2007, Pierens & Nelson 2008). The terrestrial planets finished accreting much later (Klein et al. 2009), and their characteristics, including Mars' small mass, are best reproduced by starting from a planetesimal disk with an outer edge at about one astronomical unit from the Sun (Wetherill 1978, Hansen 2009) (1 AU is the Earth-Sun distance). Here we report simulations of the early Solar System that show how the inward migration of Jupiter to 1.5 AU, and its subsequent outward migration, lead to a planetesimal disk truncated at 1 AU; the terrestrial planets then form from this disk over the next 30-50 million years, with an Earth/Mars mass ratio consistent with observations. Scattering by Jupiter initially empties but then repopulates the asteroid belt, with inner-belt bodies originating between 1 and 3 AU and outer-belt bodies originating between and beyond the giant planets. This explains the significant compositional differences across the asteroid belt. The key aspect missing from previous models of terrestrial planet formation is the substantial radial migration of the giant planets, which suggests that their behaviour is more similar to that inferred for extrasolar planets than previously thought.

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Title: Speed limit on Neptune migration imposed by Saturn tilting
Authors: Gwenaël Boué, Jacques Laskar, Petr Kuchynka

In this Letter, we give new constraints on planet migration. They were obtained under the assumption that Saturn's current obliquity is due to a capture in resonance with Neptune's ascending node. If planet migration is too fast, then Saturn crosses the resonance without being captured and it keeps a small obliquity. This scenario thus gives a lower limit on the migration time scale tau. We found that this boundary depends strongly on Neptune's initial inclination. For two different migration types, we found that tau should be at least greater than 7 Myr. This limit increases rapidly as Neptune's initial inclination decreases from 10 to 1 degree. We also give an algorithm to know if Saturn can be tilted for any migration law.

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