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Post Info TOPIC: NGC5189 & NGC6164-5


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NGC 5189
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NGC 5189 (also IC 4274, Spiral Planetary Nebula, ESO 96-PN16 and Gum 47) is a magnitude +8.2 planetary nebula located 1,780 light-years away in the constellation Musca.
The planetary nebula is about 20 arc minutes south of the magnitude +6.4 star HD117651.

The planetary nebula was discovered by Scottish astronomer James Dunlop using a  homemade 9-foot 22.86 cm (9 inch) f/12 speculum Newtonian reflector at Paramatta, New South Wales, Australia, on the 1st July 1826.
The planetary nebula was rediscovered by Williamina Fleming in 1901 and relisted as IC 4274.

Right Ascension 13h 33m 32.97s, Declination -65° 58' 26.7" 

For many years, well into the 1960s, it was thought to be a bright emission nebula. It was Karl Gordon Henize in 1967 who first described NGC 5189 as quasi-planetary based on its spectral emissions.
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RE: NGC5189
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heic1220a.jpg

The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope celebrates the holiday season with a striking image of the planetary nebula NGC 5189. The intricate structure of the stellar eruption looks like a giant and brightly coloured ribbon in space.
Planetary nebulae represent a final brief stage in the life of a star like the Sun. While consuming the last of the fuel in its core, the star expels a large portion of its outer regions, which then heats up and glows brightly, showing intricate structures that scientists are still trying to fully understand. The structure visible within NGC 5189 is particularly dramatic, and Hubble's image of the nebula is by far the most detailed yet made of this object.

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NGC 5189
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Title: The filamentary Multi-Polar Planetary Nebula NGC 5189
Authors: L. Sabin, R. Vázquez, J. A. López, Ma.T. García-Díaz, G. Ramos-Larios

We present a set of optical and infrared images combined with long-slit, medium and high dispersion spectra of the southern planetary nebula (PN) NGC 5189. The complex morphology of this PN is puzzling and has not been studied in detail so far. Our investigation reveals the presence of a new dense and cold infrared torus (alongside the optical one) which probably generated one of the two optically seen bipolar outflows and which might be responsible for the twisted appearance of the optical torus via an interaction process. The high-resolution MES-AAT spectra clearly show the presence of filamentary and knotty structures as well as three expanding bubbles. Our findings therefore suggest that NGC 5189 is a quadrupolar nebula with multiple sets of symmetrical condensations in which the interaction of outflows has determined the complex morphology.

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Galactic Of?p stars
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Title: New findings on the prototypical Of?p stars
Authors: Y. Naze (ULg), A. ud-Doula (PennState Worth.), M. Spano (Obs Gen.), G. Rauw (ULg), M. De Becker (ULg, OHP), N.R. Walborn (STScI)

In recent years several in-depth investigations of the three Galactic Of?p stars were undertaken. These multiwavelength studies revealed the peculiar properties of these objects (in the X-rays as well as in the optical): magnetic fields, periodic line profile variations, recurrent photometric changes. However, many questions remain unsolved. To clarify some of the properties of the Of?p stars, we have continued their monitoring. A new XMM observation and two new optical datasets were obtained. Additional information for the prototypical Of?p trio has been found. HD108 has now reached its quiescent, minimum-emission state, for the first time in 50--60yrs. The echelle spectra of HD148937 confirm the presence of the 7d variations in the Balmer lines and reveal similar periodic variations (though of lower amplitudes) in the HeI5876 and HeII4686 lines, underlining its similarities with the other two prototypical Of?p stars. The new XMM observation of HD191612 was taken at the same phase in the line modulation cycle but at a different orbital phase as previous data. It clearly shows that the X-ray emission of HD191612 is modulated by the 538d period and not the orbital period of 1542d - it is thus not of colliding-wind origin and the phenomenon responsible for the optical changes appears also at work in the high-energy domain. There are however problems: our MHD simulations of the wind magnetic confinement predict both a harder X-ray flux of a much larger strength than what is observed (the modelled DEM peaks at 30-40MK, whereas the observed one peaks at 2MK) and narrow lines (hot gas moving with velocities of 100--200km/s, whereas the observed FWHM is ~2000km/s).

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HD148937
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Title: HD148937: a multiwavelength study of the third Galactic member of the Of?p class
Authors: Y. Naze (IAGL, Ulg), N.R. Walborn (STScI), G. Rauw (IAGL, Ulg), F. Martins (GRAAL), A.M.T. Pollock (ESA), H.E. Bond (STScI)

Three Galactic O-type stars belong to the rare class of Of?p objects: HD108, HD191612, and HD148937. The first two stars show a wealth of phenomena, including magnetic fields and strong X-ray emission, light variability, and dramatic periodic spectral variability. We present here the first detailed optical and X-ray study of the third Galactic Of?p star, HD148937. Spectroscopic monitoring has revealed low-level variability in the Balmer and HeII4686 lines, but constancy at HeI and CIII4650. The Ha line exhibits profile variations at a possible periodicity of ~7d. Model atmosphere fits yield T_{eff}=41000±2000K, log(g)=4.0±0.1, Mdot_{sph}<~ 10^{-7}Msol/yr and a surabondance of nitrogen by a factor of four. At X-ray wavelengths, HD148937 resembles HD108 and HD191612 in having a thermal spectrum dominated by a relatively cool component (kT=0.2keV), broad lines (>1700km/s), and an order-of-magnitude overluminosity compared to normal O stars (log [L_X^unabs/L_BOL] ~ -6).

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NGC5189 & NGC6164-5
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Two new images from the Gemini Observatory released today at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Calgary, Canada, show a pair of beautiful nebulae that were created by two very different types of stars at what may be similar points in their evolutionary timelines.

One is a rare type of very massive spectral-type "O" star surrounded by material it ejected in an explosive event earlier in its life that continues to lose mass in a steady "stellar wind." The other is a star originally more similar to our Sun that has lost its outer envelope following a "red giant" phase. It continues to lose mass via a stellar wind as it dies, forming a planetary nebula. The images were made using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on Gemini South as part of the Gemini Legacy Imaging program.
GMOS was built as a joint UK / Canadian effort by the UK Astronomy Technology Centre (UKATC) in Edinburgh, the University of Durham and the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory in Canada. Its creators praise the performance of GMOS. Professor James Dunlop of the University of Edinburgh, current Chair of Gemini Science Committee, said "The Gemini telescope using GMOS is unrivalled in its ability to take stunning images of distant phenomena in our Galaxy and beyond."

UK membership of Gemini is funded by the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC), which also operates the UK ATC.

NGC 6164-5:
The first image shows the emission nebula NGC 6164-5, a rectangular, bipolar cloud with rounded corners and a diagonal bar producing an inverted S-shaped appearance. It lies about 1,300 parsecs (4,200 light-years) away in the constellation Norma. The nebula measures about 1.3 parsecs (4.2 light-years) across, and contains gases ejected by the star HD 148937 at its heart. This star is 40 times more massive than the Sun, and at about three to four million years of age, is past the middle of its life span. Stars this massive usually live to be only about six million years old, so HD 148397 is aging fast. It will likely end its life in a violent supernova explosion.

NGC 6164-5

Like other O-type stars, HD148937 is heating up its surrounding clouds of gas with ultraviolet radiation. This causes them to glow in visible light, illuminating swirls and caverns in the cloud that have been sculpted by winds from the star. Some astronomers suggest that the cloud of material has been ejected from the star as it spins on its axis, in much the same way a rotating lawn sprinkler shoots out water as it spins. It's also possible that magnetic fields surrounding the star may play a role in creating the complex shapes clearly seen in the new Gemini image.

NGC 5189:
Just as astronomers are still seeking to understand the process of mass loss from a star like HD 158937, they are also searching out the exact mechanisms at play when a star like the Sun begins to age and die. NGC 5189, a chaotic-looking planetary nebula that lies about 550 parsecs (1,800 light-years) away in the southern hemisphere constellation Musca, is a parallelogram-shaped cloud of glowing gas. The GMOS image of this nebula shows long streamers of gas, glowing dust clouds, and cometary knots pointing away from the central star. Its unruly appearance suggests some extraordinary action at the heart of this planetary nebula.

NGC 5189

At the core of NGC 5189 is the hot, hydrogen-deficient star HD 117622. It appears to be blowing off its thin remnant atmosphere into interstellar space at a speed of about 2,700 kilometres per second. As the material leaves the star, it immediately begins to collide with previously ejected clouds of gas and dust surrounding the star. This collision of the fast-moving material with slower motion gas shapes the clouds, which are illuminated by the star. These so-called "low ionisation structures" (or LIS) show up as the knots, tails, streamers, and jet-like structures we see in the Gemini image. The structures are small and not terribly bright, lending planetary nebulae their often-ghostly appearance.

"The likely mechanism for the formation of this planetary nebula is the existence of a binary companion to the dying star. Over time the orbits drift due to precession and this could result in the complex curves on the opposite sides of the star visible in this image" - Kevin Volk, Gemini scientist.

NGC 5189 was discovered by James Dunlop in 1826, when Sir John Herschel observed it in 1835 he described it as a "strange" object. It was not immediately identified as a planetary nebula, but its peculiar spectra, shows emission lines of ionised helium, hydrogen, sulphur and oxygen. These all indicate elements being burned inside the star as it ages and dies. As the material is blown out to space, it forms concentric shells of various gases from elements that were created in the star's nuclear furnace.




The objects NGC 6164-5 and NGC 5189 are accessible to southern-hemisphere amateur observers using good backyard-type telescopes.

is a small (6’ x 3’) inverted S-shaped nebula in Norma whose appearance in a telescope is adversely affected by the brightness of its central star, 6.8-magnitude HD 148937. (Its dual NGC entry refers to the nebula’s two brightest crescents, discovered by Sir John Herschel in 1834 while observing from the Cape of Good Hope in Africa.) NGC 6164 lies immediately northwest of the central star, while NGC 6165 lies immediately southeast of it. To find the nebulae, simply look for HD 148937 just 1 1/4˚ east-southeast of 4.5-magnitude Epsilon Normae, near the Ara border. Through a 4-inch refractor, the twin nebulae appear as a general haze around the central star (like breath on a mirror). Compare what you see with nearby stars of similar brightness to see the difference. Gerd Bahr-Vollrath (of Noosa Heads, Queensland, Australia) gives a most fitting description of the faint nebula as he saw it through an 8-inch f/12 Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope. While the nebula was difficult to spot, Bahr -Vollrath described the two crescents as “apparently disconnected bars of nebulosity. After careful study, faint, indistinct nebulosity immediately surrounding the central star became visible, connecting the two brighter bars. A challenging object!” He points out that clean optics and an extremely transparent night were necessary to see anything at all.

NGC 5189 is an intriguing telescopic sight. It lies 1 3/4˚ southeast of 4.5-magnitude m Centauri, which is about 6 1/4˚ east-southeast of 1st-magnitude Alpha Crucis (Acrux), the brightest and southernmost star in the Southern Cross. Although NGC 5189 shines at magnitude 9.9, its light stretches across 2.5’ of sky, so it appears dimmer than expected as seen through a small telescope. James Dunlop discovered NGC 5189 on July 1, 1826, with a 9-inch reflector at Paramatta, New South Wales. But it was John Herschel who first noticed the nebula’s curious figure. After observing it through his 18-inch speculum-mirror reflector, Herschel wrote that the object’s bright, central axis appeared “somewhat curved,” and it terminated “in two masses brighter than the rest.” Today, under a dark sky, the nebula’s irregular structure can be detected in telescopes as small as 3 inches. Through a 4-inch refractor, NGC 5189 looks like a 1.5’-long bow tie of light about 5’ northwest of a 7.5-magnitude star. With magnification and concentration, the bow tie appears irregularly bright, beaded, and blotchy. Through a 12-inch reflector, NGC 5189 is a stunning sight. Its long axis appears riddled with irregularities, while its squashed, inverted S-shaped extensions emerge from the central bar like butterfly wings open to the wind.

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