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Palomar 4

Title: The velocity dispersion and mass function of the outer halo globular cluster Palomar 4
Author: Matthias J. Frank, Michael Hilker, Holger Baumgardt, Patrick Ct, Eva K. Grebel, Hosein Haghi, Andreas H. W. Kpper, S. G. Djorgovski

We obtained precise line-of-sight radial velocities of 23 member stars of the remote halo globular cluster Palomar 4 (Pal 4) using the High Resolution Echelle Spectrograph (HIRES) at the Keck I telescope. We also measured the mass function of the cluster down to a limiting magnitude of V~28 mag using archival HST/WFPC2 imaging. We derived the cluster's surface brightness profile based on the WFPC2 data and on broad-band imaging with the Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS) at the Keck II telescope. We find a mean cluster velocity of 72.550.22 km/s and a velocity dispersion of 0.870.18 km/s. The global mass function of the cluster, in the mass range 0.55<=M<=0.85 M_solar, is shallower than a Kroupa mass function and the cluster is significantly depleted in low-mass stars in its center compared to its outskirts. Since the relaxation time of Pal 4 is of the order of a Hubble time, this points to primordial mass segregation in this cluster. Extrapolating the measured mass function towards lower-mass stars and including the contribution of compact remnants, we derive a total cluster mass of 29800 M_solar. For this mass, the measured velocity dispersion is consistent with the expectations of Newtonian dynamics and below the prediction of Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). Pal 4 adds to the growing body of evidence that the dynamics of star clusters in the outer Galactic halo can hardly be explained by MOND.

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