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Post Info TOPIC: Sun 11.04.13


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Title: The Solar Energetic Particle Event on 2013 April 11: An Investigation of its Solar Origin and Longitudinal Spread
Author: D. Lario, N.E. Raouafi, R.-Y. Kwon, J. Zhang, R. Gomez-Herrero, N. Dresing, P. Riley

We investigate the solar phenomena associated with the origin of the solar energetic particle (SEP) event observed on 2013 April 11 by a number of spacecraft distributed in the inner heliosphere over a broad range of heliolongitudes. We use Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) and white-light coronagraph observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the twin Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft (STEREO-A and STEREO-B) to determine the angular extent of the EUV wave and coronal mass ejection (CME) associated with the origin of the SEP event. We compare the estimated release time of SEPs observed at each spacecraft with the arrival time of the structures associated with the CME at the footpoints of the field lines connecting each spacecraft with the Sun. Whereas the arrival of the EUV wave and CME-driven shock at the footpoint of STEREO-B is consistent, within uncertainties, with the release time of the particles observed by this spacecraft, the EUV wave never reached the footpoint of the field lines connecting near-Earth observers with the Sun, even though an intense SEP event was observed there. We show that the west flank of the CME-driven shock propagating at high altitudes above the solar surface was most likely the source of the particles observed near Earth, but it did not leave any EUV trace on the solar disk. We conclude that the angular extent of the EUV wave on the solar surface did not agree with the longitudinal extent of the SEP event in the heliosphere. Hence EUV waves cannot be used reliably as a proxy for the solar phenomena that accelerates and injects energetic particles over broad ranges of longitudes.

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The M6.5 flare on the morning of April 11, 2013, was also associated with an Earth-directed coronal mass ejection (CME), another solar phenomenon that can send billions of tons of solar particles into space and can reach Earth one to three days later. CMEs can affect electronic systems in satellites and on the ground. Experimental NASA research models show that the CME began at 3:36 a.m. EDT on April 11, leaving the sun at over 600 miles per second.
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Sunspots 11722, 11721, 11719, 11717, 11716, 11711, 11718 and 11714 captured with a 100mm refractor + vesta pro webcam + solar filter.

Cloudy conditions. Best video footage shot today.



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