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Abell 35

Title: BD-22 3467, a DAO-type star exciting the nebula Abell 35
Authors: M. Ziegler (1), T. Rauch (1), K. Werner (1), J. Koeppen (2), J. W. Kruk (3) ((1) Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Eberhard Karls University, Tuebingen, Germany, (2) Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France, (3) NASA Goddard Space Flight Centre, Greenbelt, MD, USA)

Spectral analyses of hot, compact stars with NLTE (non-local thermodynamical equilibrium) model-atmosphere techniques allow the precise determination of photospheric parameters. The derived photospheric metal abundances are crucial constraints for stellar evolutionary theory.
Previous spectral analyses of the exciting star of the nebula A 35, BD-22 3467, were based on He+C+N+O+Si+Fe models only. For our analysis, we use state-of-the-art fully metal-line blanketed NLTE model atmospheres that consider opacities of 23 elements from hydrogen to nickel. For the analysis of high-resolution and high-S/N (signal-to-noise) FUV (far ultraviolet, FUSE) and UV (HST/STIS) observations, we combined stellar-atmosphere models and interstellar line-absorption models to fully reproduce the entire observed UV spectrum.
The best agreement with the UV observation of BD-22 3467 is achieved at Teff = 80 10 kK and log g =7.2 0.3. While Teff of previous analyses is verified, log g is significantly lower. We re-analysed lines of silicon and iron (1/100 and about solar abundances, respectively) and for the first time in this star identified argon, chromium, manganese, cobalt, and nickel and determined abundances of 12, 70, 35, 150, and 5 times solar, respectively. Our results partially agree with predictions of diffusion models for DA-type white dwarfs. A combination of photospheric and interstellar line-absorption models reproduces more than 90 % of the observed absorption features. The stellar mass is M ~ 0.48 solar masses.
BD-22 3467 may not have been massive enough to ascend the asymptotic giant branch and may have evolved directly from the extended horizontal branch to the white dwarf state. This would explain why it is not surrounded by a planetary nebula. However, the star, ionises the ambient interstellar matter, mimicking a planetary nebula.

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