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Title: Measuring the mass of the central black hole in the bulgeless galaxy NGC 4395 from gas dynamical modelling
Author: Mark den Brok, Anil C. Seth, Aaron J. Barth, Daniel J. Carson, Nadine Neumayer, Michele Cappellari, Victor P. Debattista, Luis C. Ho, Carol E. Hood, Richard M. McDermid

NGC 4395 is a bulgeless spiral galaxy, harbouring one of the nearest known type 1 Seyfert nuclei. Although there is no consensus on the mass of its central engine, several estimates suggest it to be one of the lightest massive black holes (MBHs) known. We present the first direct dynamical measurement of the mass of this MBH from a combination of two-dimensional gas kinematic data, obtained with the adaptive optics assisted near infrared integral field spectrograph Gemini/NIFS, and high-resolution multiband photometric data from Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). We use the photometric data to model the shape and stellar mass-to-light ratio (M/L) of the nuclear star cluster. From the Gemini/NIFS observations, we derive the kinematics of warm molecular hydrogen gas as traced by emission through the H2 1--0 S(1) transition. These kinematics show a clear rotational signal, with a position angle orthogonal to NGC 4395's radio jet. Our best fitting tilted ring models of the kinematics of the molecular hydrogen gas contain a black hole with mass M=4_{-3}^{+8} x 105 solar masses (3 sigma uncertainties) embedded in a nuclear star cluster of mass M=2 x 106 solar masses. Our black hole mass measurement is in excellent agreement with the reverberation mapping mass estimate of Peterson et al. (2005), but shows some tension with other mass measurement methods based on accretion signals.

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NGC 4395 is a low surface brightness spiral galaxy with a halo that is about 8' in diameter. It has several wide areas of greater brightness running northwest to southeast. The one furthest southeast is the brightest. Three of the patches have their own NGC numbers: 4401, 4400, and 4399 running east to west.
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Title: Correlated X-ray/Ultraviolet/Optical variability in the very low mass AGN NGC 4395
Authors: D. T. Cameron, I. Mc Hardy, T. Dwelly, E. Breedt, P. Uttley, P. Lira, P. Arevalo

We report the results of a one year Swift X-ray/UV/optical programme monitoring the dwarf Seyfert nucleus in NGC 4395 in 2008-2009. The UV/optical flux from the nucleus was found to vary dramatically over the monitoring period, with a similar pattern of variation in each of the observed UV/optical bands (spanning 1900 - 5500 {\AA}). In particular, the luminosity of NGC 4395 in the 1900 {\AA} band changed by more than a factor of eight over the monitoring period. The fractional variability was smaller in the UV/optical bands than that seen in the X-rays, with the X-ray/optical ratio increasing with increasing flux. Pseudo-instantaneous flux measurements in the X-ray and each UV/optical band were well correlated, with cross correlation coefficients of >0.7, significant at 99.9 per cent confidence. Archival Swift observations from 2006 sample the intra-day X-ray/optical variability on NGC 4395. These archival data show a very strong correlation between the X-ray and b bands, with a cross-correlation coefficient of 0.84 (significant at >99 per cent confidence). The peak in the cross correlation function is marginally resolved and asymmetric, suggesting that X-rays lead the b band, but by 1 hour. In response to recent (August 2011) very high X-ray flux levels from NGC4395 we triggered Swift ToO observations, which sample the intra-hour X-ray/UV variability. These observations indicate, albeit with large uncertainties, a lag of the 1900 {\AA} band behind the X-ray flux of ~400 s. The tight correlation between the X-ray and UV/optical lightcurves, together with the constraints we place on lag time-scale are consistent with the UV/optical variability of NGC 4395 being primarily due to reprocessing of X-ray photons by the accretion disc.

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