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RE: Supernova 2010bh
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Title: The Fast and Faint SN 2010bh Associated with GRB 100316D
Authors: Filomena Bufano (1), Elena Pian, Jesper Sollerman, Stefano Benetti, Giuliano Pignata, Stefano Valenti, Stefano Covino, Paolo D'Avanzo, Daniele Malesani, Enrico Cappellaro, Massimo Della Valle, Johan Fynbo, Jens Hjorth, Paolo A. Mazzali, Daniel E. Reichart, Rhaana L. C. Starling, Massimo Turatto, Susanna D. Vergani, Klass Wiersema, Lorenzo Amati, David Bersier, Sergio Campana, Zach Cano, Alberto J. Castro-Tirado, Guido Chincarini, Valerio D'Elia, Antonio de Ugarte Postigo, Jinsong Deng, Patrizia Ferrero, Alexei V. Filippenko, Paolo Goldoni, Javier Gorosabel, Jochen Greiner, Francois Hammer, Pall Jakobsson, Lex Kaper, Koji S. Kawabata, Sylvio Klose, Andrew J. Levan, Keiichi Maeda, Nicola Masetti, Bo Milvang-Jensen, Felix I. Mirabel, Palle Moller, Kenichi Nomoto, Eliana Palazzi, Silvia Piranomonte, et al. (5 additional authors not shown)

We present the spectroscopic and photometric evolution of the nearby (redshift 0.059) spectroscopically confirmed Type Ic supernova, SN 2010bh, associated with a soft, long-duration gamma-ray burst (X-ray flash) GRB 100316D. Intensive follow-up observations of SN 2010bh were performed at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), using the X-shooter and FORS2 instruments. Owing to the detailed temporal coverage and the extended wavelength range (300-2500 nm), we obtained an unprecedentedly rich spectral sequence among the hypernovae, making SN 2010bh one of the best studied representatives of this SN class. We find that SN 2010bh has a more rapid rise to maximum brightness (8.0±1.0 days) and a fainter absolute peak luminosity (L(bol)~3e42 ergs) than previously observed SN events associated with GRBs. Our estimate of the ejected (56)Ni mass is 0.12±0.02 solar masses. From the broad spectral features we measure large expansion velocities, higher than those of SNe 1998bw (GRB 980425) and 2006aj (GRB 060218). The light-curve shape and photospheric expansion velocities of SN 2010bh suggest that we witnessed a relatively high-energy explosion with a small ejected mass (E(k)~1e52 erg and M(ej)~3 solar masses). The observed properties of SN 2010bh further extend the heterogeneity of the class of GRB supernovae.

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Title: The Fast Evolution of SN 2010bh associated with XRF 100316D
Authors: Felipe Olivares E., Jochen Greiner, Patricia Schady, Arne Rau, Sylvio Klose, Thomas Krühler, Paulo M. J. Afonso, Adria C. Updike, Marco Nardini, Robert Filgas, Ana Nicuesa Guelbenzu, Christian Clemens, Jonny Elliott, D. Alexander Kann, Andrea Rossi, Vladimir Sudilovsky

About a decade ago the first observational evidence of the connection between supernovae and gamma-ray bursts was found. Since then, only half a dozen spectroscopically confirmed associations have been discovered and XRF 100316D/SN 2010bh lies among the latest. Starting observations at 12 hr and continuing until 80 days after the burst, GROND provided excellent photometric data of XRF 100316D/SN 2010bh in six filter bands from the optical to the near-infrared, significantly expanding the existing data set for this event. Combining GROND and Swift/UVOT+XRT data, the early SED is modelled with a blackbody and afterglow component attenuated by dust and gas absorption. The best-fit models imply a moderate host-galaxy extinction (A_V=1.2±0.1 mag). Furthermore, temperature and radius evolution of the thermal component are combined with earlier measurements available from the literature. The analysis reveals a cooling envelope at an apparent initial radius of 7 x 10^11 cm, compatible with a dense wind surrounding a Wolf-Rayet star. Templates of SN 1998bw are fitted to the light curve in the SN phase. The multicolour comparison shows that SN 2010bh is ~65% as bright as SN 1998bw. It proves to be the most rapidly evolving GRB-SNe to date, reaching maximum brightness at ~8 days after the burst in the blue bands. Finally, a two-component model is fitted to the quasi-bolometric light curve, which delivers M_Ni=0.21±0.03 solar masses and M_ej=2.6±0.2 solar masses, typical values within the GRB-SN population. The kinetic energy is (2.4±0.7) x 10^52 erg, making this SN the second most energetic GRB-SN after SN1998bw. SN 2010bh shows one of the earliest peaks ever recorded and thereafter fades more rapidly than other comparable SNe. This hints at a possibly thin envelope that is expanding at very high velocities and, therefore, unable to retain the gamma-rays that would prolong the duration of the SN event.

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University of Leicester scientist in rare observation of cosmic explosion

A University of Leicester researcher has led an international team of scientists to announce the discovery of a new cosmic explosion: a gamma-ray burst and its associated supernova.
The discovery was made on 16th March 2010 with NASA's Swift satellite, using the X-ray camera provided by the University of Leicester. Swift observed the GRB while the Gemini South Telescope was used to find an exploding star - or supernova - in a galaxy 820 million light years away.

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GRB 100316D
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A University of Leicester researcher has led an international team of scientists to announce the discovery of a new cosmic explosion: a gamma-ray burst and its associated supernova.

Dr. Rhaana Starling, of the Department of Physics and Astronomy, presents her research findings in a paper published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most powerful blasts in the Universe, and are thought to be created in the deaths of the most massive stars. These brief flashes of gamma radiation are picked up by dedicated satellites which then send out an alert to the astronomers who study them. This dual discovery of a gamma-ray burst and supernova is remarkable in its high energy properties: the X-ray radiation reveals the explosion breaking out of the star. This event provides a much needed confirmation of a phenomenon glimpsed only once previously, supporting the theory that GRBs are indeed linked with the destruction of massive stars.

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Supernova 2010bh
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Title: Discovery of the nearby long, soft GRB 100316D with an associated supernova
Authors: R.L.C. Starling (U. Leicester), K. Wiersema, A.J. Levan, T. Sakamoto, D. Bersier, P. Goldoni, S.R. Oates, A. Rowlinson, S. Campana, J. Sollerman, N.R. Tanvir, D. Malesani, J.P.U. Fynbo, S. Covino, P. D'Avanzo, P.T. O'Brien, K.L. Page, J.P. Osborne, S.D. Vergani, S. Barthelmy, D.N. Burrows, Z. Cano, P.A. Curran, M. De Pasquale, V. D'Elia, P.A. Evans, H. Flores, A.S. Fruchter, P. Garnavich, N. Gehrels, J. Gorosabel, J. Hjorth, S.T. Holland, A.J. van der Horst, C.P. Hurkett, P. Jakobsson, A.P. Kamble, C. Kouveliotou, N.P.M. Kuin, L. Kaper, P.A. Mazzali, P.E. Nugent, E. Pian, M. Stamatikos, C.C. Thoene, S.E. Woosley
(Version v3)

We report the Swift discovery of nearby long, soft gamma-ray burst GRB 100316D, and the subsequent unveiling of its low redshift host galaxy and associated supernova. We derive the redshift of the event to be z = 0.0591 ± 0.0001 and provide accurate astrometry for the GRB-SN. We study the extremely unusual prompt emission with time-resolved gamma-ray to X-ray spectroscopy, and find that the spectrum is best modelled with a thermal component in addition to a synchrotron emission component with a low peak energy. The X-ray light curve has a remarkably shallow decay out to at least 800 s. The host is a bright, blue galaxy with a highly disturbed morphology and we use Gemini South, VLT and HST observations to measure some of the basic host galaxy properties. We compare and contrast the X-ray emission and host galaxy of GRB 100316D to a subsample of GRB-SNe. GRB 100316D is unlike the majority of GRB-SNe in its X-ray evolution, but resembles rather GRB 060218, and we find that these two events have remarkably similar high energy prompt emission properties. Comparison of the host galaxies of GRB-SNe demonstrates, however, that there is a great diversity in the environments in which GRB-SNe can be found. GRB 100316D is an important addition to the currently sparse sample of spectroscopically confirmed GRB-SNe, from which a better understanding of long GRB progenitors and the GRB--SN connection can be gleaned.

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