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RE: NGC 2419
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Caldwell 25
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NGC 2419 (also The Intergalactic Wanderer, GCl 112 and Caldwell 25) is a magnitude +9.06 globular cluster located 275 light-years away in the constellation Lynx.
The cluster is easily found, because it forms a mini 'Orions belt' with two nearby magnitude +7.0 stars.

The cluster was discovered by German-British astronomer William Herschel using a 47.5 cm (18.7 inch) f/13 speculum reflector at Windsor Road, Slough, on the 31st December 1788.

NGC 2419 is a 9th magnitude object and is readily viewed, in good sky conditions, with good quality telescopes as small as 102mm (four inches) in aperture. Intrinsically it is one of the brightest and most massive globular clusters of our galaxy, having anabsolute magnitudeof -9.42and being 900,000 times more massive than our Sun.
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Right ascension 07h 38m 08.51s, Declination +38 52' 54.9"



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Title: An intermediate-band photometric study of the "Globular Cluster" NGC 2419
Authors: Andreas Koch, Matthias Frank, Sofia Feltzing, Daniel Aden, Nikolay Kacharov, Mark I. Wilkinson

NGC 2419 is one of the remotest star clusters in the Milky Way halo and its exact nature is yet unclear: While it has traits reminiscent of a globular cluster (GC), its large radius and suggestions of an abundance spread have fuelled the discussion about its origin in an extragalactic environment, possibly the remnants of the accretion of a dwarf galaxy. Here, we present first results from deep intermediate-band photometry of NGC 2419, which enables us to search for chemical (light element) abundance variations, metallicity spreads, and thus multiple stellar populations through well calibrated Stroemgren indices.

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Title: Do globular clusters possess Dark Matter halos? A case study in NGC 2419
Authors: Rodrigo Ibata, Carlo Nipoti, Antonio Sollima, Michele Bellazzini, Scott Chapman, Emanuele Dalessandro

We use recently published measurements of the kinematics, surface brightness and stellar mass-to-light ratio of the globular cluster NGC 2419 to examine the possibility that this Galactic halo satellite is embedded in a low-mass dark matter halo. NGC 2419 is a promising target for such a study, since its extreme Galactocentric distance and large mass would have greatly facilitated the retention of dark matter. A Markov-Chain Monte Carlo approach is used to investigate composite dynamical models containing a stellar and a dark matter component. We find that it is unlikely that a significant amount of dark matter (less than approx. 6% of the luminous mass inside the tidal limit of the cluster) can be present if the stars follow an anisotropic Michie model and the dark matter a double power law model. However, we find that more general models, derived using a new technique we have developed to compute non-parametric solutions to the spherical Jeans equation, suggest the presence of a significant dark matter fraction (approximately twice the stellar mass). Thus the presence of a dark matter halo around NGC 2419 cannot be fully ruled out at present, yet any dark matter within the 10 arcmin visible extent of the cluster must be highly concentrated and cannot exceed 1.1x10^6 Solar masses (99% confidence), in stark contrast to expectations for a plausible progenitor halo of this structure.

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Title: The Luminosity Function and stellar Mass to Light ratio of the massive globular cluster NGC2419
Authors: M. Bellazzini (INAF-OABo), E. Dalessandro (UniBo), A. Sollima (INAF-OAPd), R. Ibata (Obs. Strasbourg)

We used archival Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 images to obtain the Luminosity Function of the remote globular cluster NGC2419 from two magnitudes above the Horizontal Branch level down to ~3.0 magnitudes below the Turn Off point (to M_I ~6.4), approximately covering the range of initial stellar masses 0.5 solar masses<= m <= 0.9 solar masses. The completeness-corrected Luminosity Function does not display any change of shape over the radial range covered by the WFC3 data, out to ~6 core radii (r_c), or, equivalently, to ~2 half-light radii. The Luminosity Function in this radial range is also identical to that obtained from ground based data at much larger distances from the cluster centre (12r_c<= R<= 22r_c), in the magnitude range in which the two distributions overlap (M_I<= 4.0). These results support the conclusion by Dalessandro et al. that there is no significant mass segregation among cluster stars, hence the stellar mass-to-light ratio remains constant with distance from the cluster centre. We fitted the observed Luminosity Function with theoretical counterparts with the proper age and metallicity from different sets of stellar evolution models and we consistently derive a total V band mass-to-light ratio 1.2<= M/L_V<= 1.7, by extrapolating to the Hydrogen burning limit, with a best-fit value M/L_V=1.5 0.1. On the other hand, assuming that there are no cluster stars with m<= 0.3 solar masses, we establish a robust lower limit M/L_V> 0.8. These estimates provide useful constraints for dynamical models of the cluster that were forced to consider the stellar mass-to-light ratio as a (nearly) free parameter.

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Title: NGC 2419: a large and extreme second generation in a currently undisturbed cluster
Authors: M. Di Criscienzo, F. D'Antona, A. P. Milone, P. Ventura, V. Caloi, R. Carini, D'Ercole, E. Vesperini, G.Piotto

We analyse complementary HST and SUBARU data for the globular cluster NGC 2419. We make a detailed analysis of the horizontal branch (HB), that appears composed by two main groups of stars: the luminous blue HB stars ---that extend by evolution into the RR Lyrae and red HB region--- and a fainter, extremely blue population. We examine the possible models for this latter group and conclude that a plausible explanation is that they correspond to a significant (~30 %) extreme second generation with a strong helium enhancement (Y~0.4). We also show that the colour dispersion of the red giant branch is consistent with this hypothesis, while the main sequence data are compatible with it, although the large observational error blurs the possible underlying splitting. While it is common to find an even larger (50 -- 80) percentage of second generation in a globular cluster, the presence of a substantial and extreme fraction of these stars in NGC 2419 might be surprising, as the cluster is at present well inside the radius beyond which the galactic tidal field would be dominant. If a similar situation had been present in the first stages of the cluster life, the cluster would have retained its initial mass, and the percentage of second generation stars should have been quite small (up to ~10 %). Such a large fraction of extreme second generation stars implies that the system must have been initially much more massive and in different dynamical conditions than today. We discuss this issue in the light of existing models of the formation of multiple populations in globular clusters.

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