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Title: Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content? 
Authors: A. Einstein 
September 27, 1905 

The results of the previous investigation lead to a very interesting conclusion, which is here to be deduced.
I based that investigation on the Maxwell-Hertz equations for empty space, together with the Maxwellian expression for the electromagnetic energy of space, and in addition the principle that:-
The laws by which the states of physical systems alter are independent of the alternative, to which of two systems of coordinates, in uniform motion of parallel translation relatively to each other, these alterations of state are referred (principle of relativity). 

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On November 21, 1905, Annalen der Physik published a fourth paper by Albert Einstein (received September 27), "Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energieinhalt abhängig?" ("Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?"), in which Einstein developed an argument for arguably the most famous equation in the field of physics: E = mc². Einstein considered the equivalency equation to be of paramount importance because it showed that a massive particle possesses an energy, the "rest energy", distinct from its classical kinetic and potential energies.
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E=mc² Einsteins Big Idea 1

E=mc² Einsteins Big Idea 2



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E=mc² Einstein's Big Idea (Part 1 of 2)

E=mc² Einstein's Big Idea (Part 2 of 2)



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Why does E=mc2 by Brian Cox & Jeff Forshaw



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Playwright Lauren Gunderson discusses the world premiere of 'Emilie - La Marquise Du Chåtelet Defends Her Life at the Petit Théåtre at Cirey Tonight.'



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Émilie du Châtelet was born into a wealthy lifestyle and she received education that most women of her time did not even think of doing. Emilie is a women who dedicated her life to science. Even though she lived in the 1700's, she fought for her right as a women to discuss with men about ideas of math and science.

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Lise Meitner (November 17, 1878 – October 27, 1968) was an Austrian born, later on Swedish physicist who studied radioactivity and nuclear physics.

Meitner collaborated with Otto Hahn in Germany from 1906 through 1938. Together they found the first long-lived isotope of protactinium, establishing it as a new element. They also produced uranium fission, but Hahn failed to recognize that uranium atoms were splitting. In 1939 Meitner, in exile from Germany because of her Jewish heritage, worked out the correct explanation in collaboration with her similarly exiled nephew Otto Frisch, who named the process nuclear fission.

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It is thought that Einstein chose the letter c , as in E=mc², to represent the speed of light because the Latin word for swiftness is celeritas.

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Scientists at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) will report in tomorrow's (December 22) issue of the journal Nature that Albert Einstein's formula, E=mc², is correct.

The researchers conducted what they claimed was the most precise direct test ever of the universe-ordering formula about the nature of energy and the underpinning of Einstein's theory of special relativity. They used an instrument developed by NIST (Gaithersburg, Md.) called GAMS4 to again confirm that energy and matter are intimately related: energy (E) equals mass (m) times the square of the speed of light ().

GAMS4, now located at the Institut Laue Langevin (Grenoble, France), measured the angle at which gamma rays are diffracted by two identical crystals. The crystals were made of atoms separated by a known distance.


Photo by Artechnique, Courtesy of ILL

By comparing NIST measurements of energy emitted by silicon and sulphur atoms and MIT measurements of the mass of the same atoms, the scientists found that E differs from mc² by at most 0.0000004, or four-tenths of 1 part in 1 million. The researchers said the result was "consistent with equality" and is 55 times more accurate than the previous best direct test of Einstein’s formula.

According to the basic laws of physics, every wavelength of electromagnetic radiation corresponds to a specific amount of energy. The NIST team determined the value for energy in the Einstein equation by precisely measuring the wavelength of gamma rays emitted by the silicon and sulphur atoms.

The tests relied on a well-know process: When the nucleus of an atom captures a neutron, energy is released as gamma ray radiation. With one extra neutron, the atom's mass is predicted to equal the mass of the original atom, plus the mass of a solitary neutron, minus a value called the neutron binding energy. The neutron binding energy is equal to the energy given off as gamma ray radiation, plus a small amount of energy released in the recoil motion of the nucleus.

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