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Title: Innocent Bystanders: Carbon Stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
Authors: Paul J. Green

Among stars showing carbon molecular bands (C stars), the main sequence dwarfs, likely in post-mass transfer binaries, are numerically dominant in the Galaxy. Via spectroscopic selection from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we retrieve 1220 C stars, ~5 times more than previously known, including a wider variety than past techniques such as colour or grism selection have netted, and additionally yielding 167 DQ white dwarfs. Of the C stars with proper motion measurements, we 69% as clearly dwarfs (dCs), while ~7% are giants. The dCs likely span absolute magnitudes M_i from ~6.5 to 10.5. "G-type" dC stars with weak CN and relatively blue colours are probably the most massive dCs still cool enough to show C_2 bands. We report Balmer emission in 22 dCs, none of which are G-types. We find 8 new DA/dC stars in composite spectrum binaries, quadrupling the total sample of these "smoking guns" for AGB binary mass transfer. Eleven very red C stars with strong red CN bands appear to be "N"-type AGB stars at large Galactocentric distances, one likely a new discovery in the dIrr galaxy Leo A. Two such stars within 30arcmin, of each other may trace a previously unidentified dwarf galaxy or tidal stream at ~40 kpc. We explore the multiwavelength properties of the sample and report the first X-ray detection of a dC star, which shows strong Balmer emission. Our own spectroscopic survey additionally provides the dC surface density from a complete sample of dwarfs limited by magnitude, colour, and proper-motion.

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Title: Extension of the C star rotation curve of the Milky Way to 24 kpc 
Authors: P. Battinelli, S. Demers, C. Rossi, K. S. Gigoyan 

Demers and Battinelli published, in 2007 the rotation curve of the Milky Way based on the radial velocity of carbon stars outside the Solar circle. Since then we have established a new list of candidates for spectroscopy. The goal of this paper is to determine the rotation curve of the galaxy, as far as possible from the galactic center, using N type carbon stars. The stars were selected from their dereddened 2MASS colours, then the spectra were obtained with the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory and Asiago 1.8 meter telescopes. This publication adds radial velocities and Galactrocentric distances of 36 carbon stars, from which 20 are new confirmed. The new results for stars up to 25 kpc from the galactic center, suggest that the rotation curve shows a slight decline beyond the Solar circle. 

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Carbon stars V1942 Sgr and V CrB
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Title: Circumstellar HI and CO around the carbon stars V1942 Sgr and V CrB
Authors: Y. Libert, E. Gerard, C. Thum, J.M. Winters, L.D. Matthews, T. Le Bertre

Context. The majority of stars that leave the main sequence are undergoing extensive mass loss, in particular during the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase of evolution. Observations show that the rate at which this phenomenon develops differs highly from source to source, so that the time-integrated mass loss as a function of the initial conditions (mass, metallicity, etc.) and of the stage of evolution is presently not well understood. Aims. We are investigating the mass loss history of AGB stars by observing the molecular and atomic emissions of their circumstellar envelopes. Methods. In this work we have selected two stars that are on the thermally pulsing phase of the AGB (TP-AGB) and for which high quality data in the CO rotation lines and in the atomic hydrogen line at 21 cm could be obtained. Results. V1942 Sgr, a carbon star of the Irregular variability type, shows a complex CO line profile that may originate from a long-lived wind at a rate of ~ 10^-7 Msol/yr, and from a young (< 10^4 years) fast outflow at a rate of ~ 5 10^-7 Msol/yr. Intense HI emission indicates a detached shell with 0.044 Msol of hydrogen. This shell probably results from the slowing-down, by surrounding matter, of the same long-lived wind observed in CO that has been active during ~ 6 10^5 years. On the other hand, the carbon Mira V CrB is presently undergoing mass loss at a rate of 2 10^-7 Msol/yr, but was not detected in HI. The wind is mostly molecular, and was active for at most 3 10^4 years, with an integrated mass loss of at most 6.5 10^-3 Msol. Conclusions. Although both sources are carbon stars on the TP-AGB, they appear to develop mass loss under very different conditions, and a high rate of mass loss may not imply a high integrated mass loss.

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Title: The lack of carbon stars in the Galactic bulge
Authors: Zhu Chunhua, Lv Guoliang, Wang Zhaojun, Zhang Jun

In order to explain the lack of carbon stars in the Galactic bulge, we have made a detailed study of thermal pulse - asymptotic giant branch stars by using a population synthesis code. The effects of the oxygen overabundance and the mass loss rate on the ratio of the number of carbon stars to that of oxygen stars in the Galactic bulge are discussed. We find that the oxygen overabundance which is about twice as large as that in the solar neighbourhood (close to the present observations) is insufficient to explain the rareness of carbon stars in the bulge. We suggest that the large mass loss rate may serve as a controlling factor in the ratio of the number of carbon stars to that of oxygen stars.

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Carbon stars poster.

Download HERE.


(1282 X 1657 .JPG)



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