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Title: Venus transits: history and opportunities for planetary, solar and gravitational physics
Authors: Costantino Sigismondi, Xiaofan Wang, Patrick Rocher, Eugenio Reis-Neto

The data of 2012 transit of Venus are compared with the ones of 2004. The thickness of the atmosphere of Venus, its aureole and the effect of oblateness and other asphericities in the figure of the Sun are taken into consideration, as well as the black drop effect. A new extrapolation method for the contact times is presented. The next Mercury transit in 2016 will be fully visible from Europe, and the data will be gathered in view of this new method of analysis, to obtain the solar diameter.

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Title: Transits of Venus and the Astronomical Unit: four centuries of increasing precision
Authors: Costantino Sigismondi

Only seven transits of Venus have been observed and studied up to now since the first astronomical observations with the telescope: 1639, 1761-69, 1874-82 and 2004-12. The measurement of the Astronomical Unit has been one of the main goal of the study of this rare phenomenon, as well as the identification of the planetary atmosphere and its properties, the understanding of the black drop phenomenon and the measurement of the solar diameter. The transit of 1639 observed by J. Horrocks is presented in more detail.

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Video: Venus Transits Past, Present & Future

What's the science behind the recent Venus Transit? In this talk by Dr. Jay Pasachoff of Williams College presents brand new images and movies from the recent transit gathered in multiple wavelenghts and from many locations. This talk, which includes a detailed history of transit science, was delivered two days after the June 5, 2012, Venus Transit on the Big Island of Hawai'i.
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The second most recent transit of Venus observed from Earth took place on June 8, 2004. The event received significant attention, since it was the first Venus transit after the invention of broadcast media. No human alive at the time had witnessed a previous Venus transit since that transit occurred on December 6, 1882. 
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Transit of Venus 2004



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Transit of Venus 2004

A transit of Venus across the Sun takes place when the planet Venus, passes directly between the Sun and Earth, obscuring a small portion of the sun. During a transit, Venus can be seen from Earth as a small black disk moving across the face of the Sun. The duration of such transits is usually measured in hours (the transit of 2004 lasted six hours). The next Transit of Venus is the 6th June 2012. If you miss this one the next one is December 2117 and Dec 2125. They occur in pairs of 121.5 years and 105.5 years. These are vary rare!! Remember do not look directly at the sun to observe. You can safely project the image with binoculars.



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 Transit of Venus 2004



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Venus transit 2004
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Title: Venus transit 2004: Illustrating the capability of exoplanet transmission spectroscopy
Authors: P. Hedelt, R. Alonso, T. Brown, M. Collados Vera, H. Rauer, H. Schleicher, W. Schmidt, F. Schreier, R. Titz

The transit of Venus in 2004 offered the rare possibility to remotely sense a well-known planetary atmosphere using ground-based observations for absorption spectroscopy. Transmission spectra of Venus' atmosphere were obtained in the near infrared using the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) in Tenerife. Since the instrument was designed to measure the very bright photosphere of the Sun, extracting Venus' atmosphere was challenging. CO_2 absorption lines could be identified in the upper Venus atmosphere. Moreover, the relative abundance of the three most abundant CO_2 isotopologues could be determined. The observations resolved Venus' limb, showing Doppler-shifted absorption lines that are probably caused by high-altitude winds.
This paper illustrates the ability of ground-based measurements to examine atmospheric constituents of a terrestrial planet atmosphere which might be applied in future to terrestrial extrasolar planets.

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The transit of Venus
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The simultaneous occurrence of a solar eclipse and a transit of Venus is currently possible, but very rare. The next solar eclipse occurring during a transit of Venus will be on 5 April 15,232. The last time a solar eclipse occurred during a transit of Venus was on 1 November 15,607 BC. It could be noticed that the day after the Venusian transit of 3 June 1769 there was a total solar eclipse, which was visible in Northern America, Europe and Northern Asia.
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Transit of Venus on June 4, 1769
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Only five hours after the transit of Venus on June 4, 1769, there was a total solar eclipse, which was visible in Northern America, Europe, and Northern Asia as partial solar eclipse. This was the lowest time difference between a transit of a planet and a solar eclipse in the historical past.
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