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Arp 210
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NGC 1569 Starburst Galaxy, zoom into

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NGC 1569
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NGC 1569 (also known as UGC 3056, Arp 210 and PGC 15345) is a 11th-magnitude dwarf irregular galaxy belonging to the IC 342 group of galaxies located nearly 11 million light-years away in the constellation Camelopardalis.
NGC 1569's most notable feature is the powerful starburst it's experiencing, having formed stars at a rate 100 times larger than that of our galaxy during the last 100 million years.
NGC 1569 is exceptional in that its spectrum is blueshifted.

The galaxy was discovered, on November 4, 1788 by William Herschel using a 47.5 cm (18.7 inch) f/13 speculum reflector at Windsor Road, Slough.

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Title: Determining the Nature of the Extended HI Structure Around LITTLE THINGS Dwarf Galaxy NGC 1569
Authors: Megan Johnson

This work presents an extended, neutral Hydrogen emission map around Magellanic-type dwarf irregular galaxy (dIm) NGC 1569. In the Spring of 2010, the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) was used to map a 9 degree x 2 degree region in HI line emission that includes NGC 1569 and IC 342 as well as two other dwarf galaxies. The primary objective for these observations was to search for structures potentially connecting NGC 1569 with IC 342 group members in order to trace previous interactions and thus, provide an explanation for the starburst and peculiar kinematics prevalent in NGC 1569. A large, half-degree diameter HI cloud was detected that shares the same position and velocity as NGC 1569. Also, two long structures were discovered that are reminiscent of intergalactic filaments extending out in a v-shaped manner from NGC 1569 toward UGCA 92, a nearby dwarf galaxy. These filamentary structures extend for about 1.5 degrees, which is 77 kpc at NGC 1569. There is a continuous velocity succession with the 0.5 degree HI cloud, filaments, and main body of the galaxy. The 0.5 degree HI cloud and filamentary structures may be foreground Milky Way, but are suggestive as possible remnants of an interaction between NGC 1569 and UGCA 92. The data also show two tidal tails extending from UGCA 86 and IC 342, respectively. These structures may be part of a continuous HI bridge but more data are needed to determine if this is the case.

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Title: Probing the Super Star Cluster Environment of NGC 1569 Using FISICA
Authors: D. M. Clark, S. S. Eikenberry, S. N. Raines, N. Gruel, R. Elston, R. Guzman, G. Boreman, P. E. Glenn

We present near-IR JH spectra of the central regions of the dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 1569 using the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Cosmology and Astrophysics (FISICA). The dust-penetrating properties and available spectral features of the near-IR, combined with the integral field unit (IFU) capability to take spectra of a field, make FISICA an ideal tool for this work. We use the prominent [He I] (1.083 Ám) and Pa\beta (1.282 Ám) lines to probe the dense star forming regions as well as characterize the general star forming environment around the super star clusters (SSCs) in NGC 1569. We find [He I] coincident with CO clouds to the north and west of the SSCs, which provides the first, conclusive evidence for embedded star clusters here.

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Title: HST/ACS Photometry of Old Stars in NGC 1569: The Star Formation History of a Nearby Starburst
Authors: Aaron J. Grocholski, Roeland P. van der Marel, Alessandra Aloisi, Francesca Annibali, Laura Greggio, Monica Tosi

We used HST/ACS to obtain deep V- and I-band images of NGC 1569, one of the closest and strongest starburst galaxies in the Universe. These data allowed us to study the underlying old stellar population, aimed at understanding NGC 1569's evolution over a full Hubble time. We focus on the less-crowded outer region of the galaxy, for which the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) shows predominantly a red giant branch (RGB) that reaches down to the red clump/horizontal branch feature (RC/HB). A simple stellar population analysis gives clear evidence for a more complicated star formation history (SFH) in the outer region. We derive the full SFH using a newly developed code, SFHMATRIX, which fits the CMD Hess diagram by solving a non-negative least squares problem. Our analysis shows that the relative brightnesses of the RGB tip and RC/HB, along with the curvature and colour of the RGB, provide enough information to ameliorate the age-metallicity-extinction degeneracy. The distance/reddening combination that best fits the data is E(B-V) = 0.58 ▒0.03 and D = 3.06 ▒0.18 Mpc. Star formation began ~ 13 Gyr ago, and this accounts for the majority of the mass in the outer region. However, the initial burst was followed by a relatively low, but constant, rate of star formation until ~ 0.5-0.7 Gyr ago when there may have been a short, low intensity burst of star formation.

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Astronomers have long puzzled over why a small, nearby, isolated galaxy is pumping out new stars faster than any galaxy in our local neighbourhood. Now NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has helped astronomers solve the mystery of the loner starburst galaxy, called NGC 1569, by showing that it is one and a half times farther away than astronomers thought. Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 and Advanced Camera for Surveys made the observations of NGC 1569 in September 1999, November 2006, and January 2007.

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Title: A New Hubble Space Telescope Distance to NGC 1569: Starburst Properties and IC 342 Group Membership
Authors: Aaron J. Grocholski, Alessandra Aloisi, Roeland P. van der Marel, Jennifer Mack, Francesca Annibali, Luca Angeretti, Laura Greggio, Enrico V. Held, Donatella Romano, Marco Sirianni, Monica Tosi

We present deep HST ACS/WFC photometry of the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 1569, one of the closest and strongest nearby starburst galaxies. These data allow us, for the first time, to unequivocally detect the tip of the red giant branch and thereby determine the distance to NGC 1569. We find that this galaxy is 3.36 0.20 Mpc away, considerably farther away than the typically assumed distance of 2.2 0.6 Mpc. Previously thought to be an isolated galaxy due to its shorter distance, our new distance firmly establishes NGC 1569 as a member of the IC 342 group of galaxies. The higher density environment may help explain the starburst nature of NGC 1569, since starbursts are often triggered by galaxy interactions. On the other hand, the longer distance implies that NGC 1569 is an even more extreme starburst galaxy than previously believed. Previous estimates of the rate of star formation for stars younger than ~ 1 Gyr become stronger by more than a factor of 2. Stars older than this were not constrained by previous studies. The dynamical masses of NGC 1569's three super star clusters, which are already known as some of the most massive ever discovered, increase by ~53% to 6-7x10^5 solar masses.

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