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Abell 2204

Title: Suzaku, Chandra, and XMM-Newton Analysis of Abell 2204: The Galaxy Cluster Gas Temperature Profile from 10 kpc to 1800 kpc
Authors: T. H. Reiprich, D. S. Hudson, Y.-Y. Zhang, K. Sato, Y. Ishisaki, A. Hoshino, T. Ohashi, N. Ota, Y. Fujita

Context: Measurements of intracluster gas temperatures out to large radii are important for the use of clusters for precision cosmology and for studies of cluster physics. Previous attempts to measure robust temperatures at cluster virial radii failed. Aims: The goal of this work is to measure the temperature profile of the very relaxed galaxy cluster Abell 2204 out to large radii, possibly reaching the virial radius. Methods: Taking advantage of its low particle background due to its low-Earth orbit, Suzaku data are used to measure the outer temperature profile of Abell 2204. These data are combined with Chandra and XMM-Newton data of the same cluster in order to make the connection to the inner regions, unresolved by Suzaku, and to determine the smearing due to Suzaku's PSF. Results: The temperature profile of Abell 2204 is determined from 10 kpc to 1800 kpc, close to an estimate of r200 (the approximation to the virial radius). The temperature rises steeply from below 4 keV in the very centre up to more than 8 keV in the intermediate range and then decreases again to about 4 keV at the largest radii. Varying the measured particle background normalization artificially by +-10 percent does not change the results significantly. Predictions for outer temperature profiles based on hydrodynamic simulations show good agreement. In particular, we find the observed temperature profile to be slightly steeper but consistent with a drop of a factor of 0.6 from 0.3 r200 to r200, as predicted by simulations. Conclusions: Temperature measurements up to the virial radius seem feasible with Suzaku, when a careful analysis of the different background components and the effects of the PSF is performed. The result obtained here indicates that numerical simulations capture the intracluster gas physics well in cluster outskirts.

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