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Supernova 2005bf

Title: The Unique Type Ib Supernova 2005bf at Nebular Phases: A Possible Birth Event of A Strongly Magnetized Neutron Star
Authors: K. Maeda, M. Tanaka, K.Nomoto, N. Tominaga, K. Kawabata, P.A. Mazzali, H. Umeda, T.Suzuki, T. Hattori

Late phase nebular spectra and photometry of Type Ib Supernova (SN) 2005bf taken by the Subaru telescope at ~ 270 and ~ 310 days since the explosion are presented. Emission lines ([OI]6300, 6363, [CaII]7291, 7324, [FeII]7155) show the blueshift of ~ 1,500 - 2,000 km s-1. The [OI] doublet shows a doubly-peaked profile. The line luminosities can be interpreted as coming from a blob or jet containing only ~ 0.1 - 0.4 Msun, in which ~ 0.02 - 0.06 Msun is 56Ni synthesised at the explosion. To explain the blueshift, the blob should either be of unipolar moving at the center-of-mass velocity v ~ 2,000 - 5,000 km s-1, or suffer from self-absorption within the ejecta as seen in SN 1990I. In both interpretations, the low-mass blob component dominates the optical output both at the first peak (~ 20 days) and at the late phase (~ 300 days). The low luminosity at the late phase (the absolute R magnitude M_R ~ -10.2 mag at ~ 270 days) sets the upper limit for the mass of 56Ni < ~ 0.08 Msun, which is in contradiction to the value necessary to explain the second, main peak luminosity (M_R ~ -18.3 mag at ~ 40 days). Encountered by this difficulty in the 56Ni heating model, we suggest an alternative scenario in which the heating source is a newly born, strongly magnetized neutron star (a magnetar) with the surface magnetic field Bmag ~ 10^{14-15} gauss and the initial spin period P0 ~ 10 ms. Then, SN 2005bf could be a link between normal SNe Ib/c and an X-Ray Flash associated SN 2006aj, connected in terms of Bmag and/or P0.

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