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Title: Lomonosov's Discovery of Venus Atmosphere in 1761: English Translation of Original Publication with Commentaries
Author: Vladimir Shiltsev

Key figure of Russian Enlightenment, polymath Mikhail Vasilievich Lomonosov (1711-1765) had discovered atmosphere of Venus during its transit over the Sun's disc in 1761. This paper contains the first full English translation of his report (originally published in Russian in July of 1761 and in German in August of the same year), commentaries and extensive bibliography.

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Title: Experimental Reconstruction of Lomonosov's Discovery of Venus's Atmosphere with Antique Refractors During the 2012 Transit of Venus
Author: Alexandre Koukarine, Igor Nesterenko, Yuri Petrunin, Vladimir Shiltsev

In 1761, the Russian polymath Mikhail Vasilievich Lomonosov (1711-1765) discovered the atmosphere of Venus during its transit over the Sun's disc. In this paper we report on experimental reenactments of Lomonosov's discovery with antique refractors during the transit of Venus June 5-6, 2012. We conclude that Lomonosov's telescope was fully adequate to the task of detecting the arc of light around Venus off the Sun's disc during ingress or egress if proper experimental techniques as described by Lomonosov in his 1761 report are employed.

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Title: Remarks to the article: New Light on the Invention of the Achromatic Telescope Objective
Author: Igor Nesterenko

The article analysis was carried out within the confines of the replication project of the telescope, which was used by Mikhail Lomonosov at observation the transit of Venus in 1761. At that time he discovered the Venusian atmosphere. It is known that Lomonosov used Dollond 4.5 feet long achromatic telescope. The investigation revealed significant faults in the description of the approximation method, which most likely was used by J. Dollond & Son during manufacturing of the early achromatic lenses.

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