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IceCube telescope
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IceCube telescope: Extreme science meets extreme electronics

The world's largest telescope, currently under construction more than a mile beneath the Antarctic ice, is on schedule to be completed next year, according to a researcher at the University of Wisconsin, the lead institution for a scientific project called IceCube.
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Title: IceCube
Authors: A. Karle, for the IceCube Collaboration

IceCube is a 1 km≥ neutrino telescope currently under construction at the South Pole. The detector will consist of 5160 optical sensors deployed at depths between 1450 m and 2450 m in clear Antarctic ice distributed over 86 strings. An air shower array covering a surface area of 1 km≤† above the in-ice detector will measure cosmic ray air showers in the energy range from 300 TeV to above 1 EeV. The detector is designed to detect neutrinos of all flavours: electron-, muon-, and tau-neutrinos. With 59 strings in operation in 2009, construction is 67% complete. Based on data taken to date, the observatory meets its design goals. Selected results will be presented.

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IceCube Neutrino Observatory
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IceCube's Antarctic season ends with success

As darkness settles over the South Pole and the Antarctic winter begins, the IceCube Neutrino Observatory has something to celebrate: a great season on the ice.
The 2009-10 season wrapped up 10 days ahead of schedule, and increased efficiency with the hot-water drill translated to 25,000 gallons in fuel savings.
IceCube is an innovative physics experiment that uses a cubic kilometre of ice at the South Pole as a telescope, searching the universe for neutrinos.

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Title: Kilometre-Scale Neutrino Detectors: First Light
Authors: Francis Halzen

This is a brief report on the status of neutrino "astronomy" at a time when the kilometre-scale neutrino detector IceCube is approaching completion. We revisit the rationale for constructing gigantic neutrino detectors by transforming large volumes of natural ice and water into Cherenkov detectors. With time, the motivation for building such instruments has come into clear focus, and the requirement for their kilometre scale has been rationalized with improved accuracy. We will discuss the performance and some selected results of IceCube based on data taken during construction.

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Title: First Neutrino Point-Source Results From the 22-String IceCube Detector
Authors: IceCube Collaboration: R. Abbasi, et al

We present new results of searches for neutrino point sources in the northern sky, using data recorded in 2007-08 with 22 strings of the IceCube detector (approximately one-fourth of the planned total) and 275.7 days of livetime. The final sample of 5114 neutrino candidate events agrees well with the expected background of atmospheric muon neutrinos and a small component of atmospheric muons. No evidence of a point source is found, with the most significant excess of events in the sky at 2.2 sigma after accounting for all trials. The average upper limit over the northern sky for point sources of muon-neutrinos with E^-2 spectrum is E^2 Phi_nu_mu < 1.4x10^-11 TeV cm^-2 s^-1, in the energy range from 3 TeV to 3 PeV, improving the previous best average upper limit by the AMANDA-II detector by a factor of two.

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As the 2008-09 Antarctic drilling season concludes, the IceCube Neutrino Observatory is on track to be finished as planned in 2011.
The observatory is an enormous telescope designed to capture evidence of elusive subatomic particles called neutrinos released by distant cosmic events like exploding stars. Built directly into the ice covering Antarctica, IceCube uses the Earth to filter out lower-energy particles and focus instead on the highest energy neutrinos that carry information about supernovas, dark matter, gamma-ray bursts and other exotic cosmological mysteries.

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University of Delaware (UD) scientists and engineers are currently working at South Pole under very harsh conditions. This research team is one of the many other ones working on the construction of IceCube, the world's largest neutrino telescope in the Antarctic ice, far beneath the continent's snow-covered surface. When it is completed in 2011, the telescope array will occupy a cubic kilometre of Antarctica. One of the lead researchers said that 'IceCube will provide new information about some of the most violent and far-away astrophysical events in the cosmos.' The UD team has even opened a blog to cover this expedition. It will be opened up to December 22, 2008.

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Title: IceCube: A Cubic Kilometer Radiation Detector
Authors: Spencer R. Klein, for the IceCube Collaboration
(Version v2)

IceCube is a 1 km^3 neutrino detector now being built at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. It consists of 4800 Digital Optical Modules (DOMs) which detect Cherenkov radiation from the charged particles produced in neutrino interactions. IceCube will observe astrophysical neutrinos with energies above about 100 GeV. IceCube will be able to separate \nu_\mu, \nu_e and \nu_\tau interactions because of their different topologies. IceCube construction is currently 50% complete.

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IceCube, which is due to be completed by 2011, aims to find elusive neutrinos. It will use 80 strings of detectors buried within the ice at the South Pole. The detectors look for a track of light that is produced when a neutrino interacts with ice and spits out a muon, which itself then streaks through the ice.
Unfortunately, about a million times as many muons are actually produced in Earth's atmosphere. To prevent such muons from being confused with those produced in the ice by neutrinos, IceCube will focus on "upward-going" neutrinos that come through the Earth from the northern hemisphere. That will ensure that the intervening rock blocks out atmospheric muons from northern skies.
But this perspective means IceCube will miss out on neutrinos that may arise from exotic processes in objects in the southern sky, such as the decay of dark matter. The exact nature of dark matter is unknown, but most physicists think it is made up of weakly interacting massive particles.

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A giant telescope buried in ice at the South Pole could one day create pictures of the Earths core. According to a new calculation, the instrument called IceCube could produce a picture of the Earth's dense iron core, silhouetted against the lighter rocky mantle.
Currently under construction, IceCube is designed to detect subatomic particles called neutrinos, which are so evasive that they can slip quite easily through the body of the planet.
A few neutrinos are not so lucky, however, and deep under the South Pole IceCube is designed to spot them. The machine consists of thousands of detectors and will eventually fill a cubic kilometre of ice. The detectors look downwards, watching for the distinctive flash of blue light that means a neutrino has come through most of the planet only to get snagged in the Antarctic ice.
The main aim is to look for neutrinos from exotic objects in deep space, such as the giant black holes in galactic cores, using the bulk of the Earth as a shield to screen out unwanted noise from other cosmic particles.

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Title: Imaging the Internal Structure of the Earth with Atmospheric Neutrinos
Authors: M.C. Gonzalez-Garcia, Francis Halzen, Michele Maltoni, Hiroyuki K.M. Tanaka

The possibility of doing tomography of the Earth's structure using a cosmic neutrino beam has been extensively studied since it was first suggested more than twenty five years ago. The absorption of neutrinos with energies in excess of 10 TeV when traversing the Earth is capable of revealing its density distribution. Unfortunately, the existence of beams with sufficient luminosity for the task has been ruled out by the AMANDA South Pole neutrino telescope. In this letter we point out that, with the advent of second-generation kilometre-scale neutrino detectors, the idea of studying the internal structure of the Earth may be revived using atmospheric neutrinos instead. We show that a direct observation of the core of the Earth may be possible using the high statistics data samples collected by IceCube. By giving direct evidence on the Earth's interior, the observation is complementary to indirect geophysical measurements.

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