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RE: Solar Cycle 23
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Title: The behaviour of the spotless active regions during the solar minimum 23-24
Author: Alexandre J. Oliveira e Silva, Caius L. Selhorst

In this work, we analysed the physical parameters of the spotless actives regions observed during solar minimum 23 - 24 (2007 - 2010). The study was based on radio maps at 17~GHz obtained by the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH) and magnetograms provided by the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The results shows that the spotless active regions presents the same radio characteristics of a ordinary one, they can live in the solar surface for long periods (>10 days), and also can present small flares.

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Title: The Minimum of Solar Cycle 23: As Deep as It Could Be?
Author: Andrés Muñoz-Jaramillo, Ryan R. Senkpeil, Dana W. Longcope, Andrey G. Tlatov, Alexei A. Pevtsov, Laura A. Balmaceda, Edward E. DeLuca, Petrus C. H. Martens

In this work we introduce a new way of binning sunspot group data with the purpose of better understanding the impact of the solar cycle on sunspot properties and how this defined the characteristics of the extended minimum of cycle 23. Our approach assumes that the statistical properties of sunspots are completely determined by the strength of the underlying large-scale field and have no additional time dependencies. We use the amplitude of the cycle at any given moment (something we refer to as activity level) as a proxy for the strength of this deep-seated magnetic field.
We find that the sunspot size distribution is composed of two populations: one population of groups and active regions and a second population of pores and ephemeral regions. When fits are performed at periods of different activity level, only the statistical properties of the former population, the active regions, is found to vary.
Finally, we study the relative contribution of each component (small-scale versus large-scale) to solar magnetism. We find that when hemispheres are treated separately, almost every one of the past 12 solar minima reaches a point where the main contribution to magnetism comes from the small-scale component. However, due to asymmetries in cycle phase, this state is very rarely reached by both hemispheres at the same time. From this we infer that even though each hemisphere did reach the magnetic baseline, from a heliospheric point of view the minimum of cycle 23 was not as deep as it could have been.

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