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Meteor showers prompted Sudbury volcano eruptions, study suggests

The impact of ancient meteorites sparked volcanic eruptions, a team led by Trinity College Dublin geochemists says in a report.
The team studied rocks in a massive crater in Sudbury, Ontario, where a deep basin was formed 1.85 billion years ago by a bolide, a meteor which exploded in the atmosphere.
Small volcanic fragments of the crash remain, each shaped like a crab claw. Their shape indicates they were formed when gas bubbles expanded in molten rock and then suddenly exploded.

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Comet Strike to Blame for Canada's Iconic Sudbury Basin

The Sudbury Basin, which is the world's second-largest impact crater, was likely formed by an enormous comet that battered Earth more than 1.8 billion years ago, new research suggests.
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Ancient meteor fragment removed from ground in Marquette County, sent to MTU

Professors from Michigan Tech University were in the area Thursday morning to collect a piece of ancient history.
Bill Rose, an MTU research professor specialising in volcanology, oversaw the removal of a boulder near the Marquette County Road 510 bridge that spans the Dead River. Scientists say the large rock has ties to a major meteor impact from nearly 2 billion years ago.

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About one billion years ago, a meteorite crashed into earth, 260 miles west of Toronto, creating an indentation 35 miles long and 15 miles wide. During construction of the railroad, blasting revealed several minerals, most notably nickel. Years of smelting resulted in the region resembling a wasteland somewhat like the lifeless terrain on the moon. NASA astronauts came to Sudbury to better understand uncommon rock formations affiliated with meteorite impact. The nearby town of Capreol has a 12-ton meteor fragment displayed in the local park.
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Meteor impact likely influenced early life

As the site of an ancient meteor impact, which took place 1.85 billion years ago, the Sudbury area held a special significance to geologists John Slack and Bill Cannon before they began working on their most recent research.
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The mountain-size meteorite that struck Sudbury nearly two billion years ago - already known to have made the northern Ontario city a global mining mecca - may have also triggered changes in Earth's ocean chemistry that allowed complex life to begin evolving on the planet, two U.S. government scientists have theorised.
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Giant Asteroid Impact Could Have Stirred Entire Ocean
The collision of a large extraterrestrial object with Earth almost 2 billion years ago may have stirred the seas worldwide and delivered a huge serving of oxygen to the deep ocean.
The Sudbury impact, named after the Canadian city located near the center of what remains of the ancient crater, happened around 1.85 billion years ago. Despite erosion since then, the impact structure - at least 200 kilometres across - is recognised to be the second-largest on the face of the planet, says William Cannon, a geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey in Reston, Va., and coauthor on a paper in the November Geology. The event fundamentally affected the concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the deep sea - enough to almost instantly shut down the accumulation of marine sediments known as banded iron formations, report Cannon and coauthor John F. Slack, also of the USGS in Reston.

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Drive through the city streets, go for a stroll, or simply take a peek outside your window. What do you see? Rocks! They vary in shape and colour and seem to be everywhere in our community and they tell a very unusual story.
About 1.85 billion years ago, a meteorite hit the ground where Sudbury lies and in just a few seconds produced a crater 200 kilometres in diameter. This impact had such a devastating and visible effect, it is now the second-largest impact crater found on Earth -- larger even than the one in Yucatan, Mex., which resulted in the dinosaur extinction.

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Anyone living in the Sudbury area is well familiar with the jokes about the magnificent landscape that surrounds the city. "Moonscape" is probably the least unkind of the adjectives that is used to describe the area. It certainly did not help reduce the teasing very much when Apollo astronauts trained for their lunar missions in the Sudbury Basin.

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If you were standing in Milwaukee - or what would become Milwaukee - some 1.85 billion years ago, you would have witnessed one of the most cataclysmic events to happen on Earth. And then immediately died.
An enormous extraterrestrial object collided with the Earth with unimaginable force in what is now southeastern Ontario near the city of Sudbury, Canada, about 200 miles northwest of Toronto.

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